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Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1. L1.2 Introduction to Abaqus Overview SIMULIA What is Abaqus FEA? Overview of Abaqus/CAE Starting Abaqus/CAE Overview of.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1. L1.2 Introduction to Abaqus Overview SIMULIA What is Abaqus FEA? Overview of Abaqus/CAE Starting Abaqus/CAE Overview of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1

2 L1.2 Introduction to Abaqus Overview SIMULIA What is Abaqus FEA? Overview of Abaqus/CAE Starting Abaqus/CAE Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus Conventions Documentation Abaqus Environment Settings Abaqus Fetch Utility Abaqus/CAE Checklist Working with the Model Tree Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

3 SIMULIA

4 L1.4 Introduction to Abaqus SIMULIA SIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions including The Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA Multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems Lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA R&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, France Global network of regional offices and distributors

5 L1.5 Introduction to Abaqus SIMULIA SIMULIA Headquarters: Providence, Rhode Island Offices: USA: California Indiana Michigan OhioRhode IslandTexas Overseas: Australia Austria China Finland France Germany (2) India Italy Japan (2) Korea Netherlands Sweden UK (2) Representatives: Overseas: ArgentinaBrazil Czech Republic Malaysia New Zealand Poland RussiaSingapore South Africa Spain Taiwan Turkey

6 What is Abaqus FEA?

7 L1.7 Introduction to Abaqus What is Abaqus FEA? Suite of finite element analysis modules

8 L1.8 Introduction to Abaqus What is Abaqus FEA? The structural analysis “solver” modules, Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, are complementary and integrated analysis tools.* Abaqus/Standard is a general-purpose finite element module. It provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems, including many nonstructural applications. Abaqus/Explicit is an explicit dynamics finite element module. Abaqus/CAE incorporates the analysis modules into a Complete Abaqus Environment for modeling, managing, and monitoring Abaqus analyses and visualizing results. * Abaqus/CFD is a computational fluid dynamics analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.

9 Overview of Abaqus/CAE

10 L1.10 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Abaqus/CAE main user interface Integrates modeling, analysis, job management, and results evaluation seamlessly. Provides the most complete interface with the Abaqus solver programs available. Uses neutral database files that are machine independent. Can be customized to create application- specific systems.

11 L1.11 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Modern graphical user interface (GUI) of menus, icons, and dialog boxes Menus provide access to all capabilities. Icons accelerate access to frequently used features. Dialog boxes allow you to input alphanumeric information and to select various options. Visualization toolbox icons Mechanical property submenu Elastic material form

12 L1.12 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Consistent environment Functionality is presented in modules. Each module contains a logical subset of the overall functionality. Once you understand the presentation of one module, you can easily understand the presentation of the other modules.

13 L1.13 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Create the part geometry (and regions for sections, if necessary) Position parts for initial configuration. Split assembly into meshable regions and mesh Define analysis steps and output requests Define materials Define additional part regions Define and assign sections to parts or regions Define contact and other interactions on regions or named sets, and assign them to steps in the analysis history Apply loads, BCs, and ICs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis history Submit, manage, and monitor analysis jobs Examine results PartAssembly StepLoad MeshVisualization Property Interaction Job

14 L1.14 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Model Tree and the Results Tree The Model Tree provides you with a graphical overview of your model and the objects that it contains. The Results Tree is used to display analysis results from output databases as well as session- specific data such as X–Y plots. Both trees provide shortcuts to much of the functionality of the main menu bar, the module toolboxes, and the various managers. Some features of the Model and Results trees are discussed next.

15 L1.15 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Tree features Navigation tool Context sensitive RMB actions  edit/create/suppress/query Can effectively build most of your model from the tree Model query/auditing E.g., shows number of sections, materials, constraints currently defined Shows status of certain features/items (invalid part, suppressed feature) Comprehensive view of Abaqus model data “Containers” expand to show objects and their hierarchy Step dependent objects (e.g., BCs) appear in the STEP and LOAD containers

16 L1.16 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Tool tips Float the mouse over a container or item… “Pruning” the tree You can set a certain container as the new “root” to reduce clutter Keyboard shortcuts Hide/show Expand/collapse Search Delete items Switch context Filtering

17 L1.17 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE cutsolid extrusion fillet Part with several annotated features Models are feature-based and parametric A feature is a meaningful piece of the design. Models are constructed from numerous features; for example: Geometric features Solid extrusion, wire, cut, fillet, etc. Assembly features Wheel must be concentric with the axle, the blank lies exactly in contact with the rigid die, etc. Mesh features Partition the mesh into different regions for different meshing techniques, seed different edges with different mesh densities, etc.

18 L1.18 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE A parameter is a modifiable quantity that provides additional information for a feature; for example: Solid extrusion parameters Sketch of extrusion cross- section, depth of extrusion. Cut Sketch of cut cross-section, depth of cut. Fillet parameter Fillet radius. Solid extrusion parameters sketch of extrusion cross-section extrusion depth

19 L1.19 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE parent: solid extrusion child: cut child: fillet Example of Parent-Child Relationships among Features Features often have parent-child relationships, such that the existence of the child depends on the existence of the parent; for example: Delete the solid extrusion, and the hole and fillet cannot exist. Delete the part, and the mesh cannot exist. Abaqus/CAE always asks to make sure that you want to delete the parent and its child features. cutsolid extrusion fillet

20 L1.20 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Features can be modified by editing their parameters. Aspects of the model can be regenerated. Parametric studies are easy and natural. Features can also be deleted or temporarily suppressed with the option to resume them later. If a parent feature is deleted or suppressed, all its child features are also deleted or suppressed.

21 L1.21 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Interoperability Abaqus/CAE is based on the concepts of parts and assemblies, which are common to many CAD systems. Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE. Geometry can be imported from other packages and exported to other packages. Existing Abaqus meshes can be imported for further processing. Individual models can be copied between databases.

22 L1.22 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Dockable toolbars Allow you to modify the layout and appearance of toolbars Individual toolbars can be moved by dragging the toolbar grip Toolbars can be “docked” at any of four docking regions located around the main window Floating toolbars can be located anywhere Orientation of floating toolbars can be controlled Dock Sites

23 L1.23 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Custom toolbars Include shortcuts to functions not in standard toolbars or toolboxes Can collect commonly used functions To add a function to a custom toolbar: Tools → Customize Select the function in the Customize dialog box Drag it onto the custom toolbar. Assign an icon to represent the toolbar Can be moved, docked, floated, or hidden in the same way as standard toolbars

24 L1.24 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Custom keyboard shortcuts Available for most functions. E.g., the key combination [Shift] + [Ctrl] + P may be assigned to Create Part dialog box Default keyboard shortcuts for common functions (save, print, etc.) can also be reassigned. Keyboard shortcuts must use one of the following keys or key combinations: Any function key except F1 [Alt] + [Shift] + key [Ctrl] + key. You can also add [Alt] or [Shift] to modify any keyboard shortcut that includes the [Ctrl] key.

25 L1.25 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE View manipulation Toolbar to control view (pan, zoom, rotate, etc.). Alternatively, can use a combination of keyboard and mouse actions: Rotate: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB1. Pan: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB2. Zoom: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB3. You can reconfigure these combinations to mimic the view manipulation interfaces used by other common CAD applications

26 L1.26 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE 3D compass View manipulation tool Provides a quick and convenient way to change model view Appears by default in each viewport; can be turned off if necessary Uses three axes to indicate current model orientation Can be clicked, dragged and oriented; by clicking different areas, specialized view manipulations can be performed: Rotate freely about the model's center of rotation. Rotate about a fixed axis. Pan camera along a fixed axis. Pan camera within a fixed plane. Apply a predefined view.

27 L1.27 Introduction to Abaqus Model 1Model 2Model 3 Model database (.cae ) Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is a model database file (extension.cae )? Contains all the information for any number of models. Typically contains one model or several related models. Only one model database can be opened in Abaqus/CAE at a time.

28 L1.28 Introduction to Abaqus Model 1 parts material properties 1 assembly 1 analysis history Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is a model? Contains all the necessary information for an analysis. Contains any number of parts and their associated properties. Is independent of other models in the model database. Objects such as parts and materials can be copied between different models in the same database. Contains a single assembly of part instances, including the associated contact interactions, loads and boundary conditions, mesh, and analysis history.

29 L1.29 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Models can be imported into one database from another Model data from the imported database is copied into the current database. E.g., parts, sections, assemblies, materials, loads, BCs, etc. Analysis job definitions and custom data are not copied User A User B Master Model = +

30 L1.30 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is Python? Command language used by Abaqus/CAE. Uses range from command scripting to creating customized applications. Powerful and easy-to-use public domain, object-oriented programming language. There are several books available on Python programming. Additional learning materials are available online at It is not necessary to learn Python programming to use Abaqus/CAE.

31 L1.31 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/CAE Commands issued during an Abaqus/CAE session are saved in journaling files containing Python scripts. Replay (.rpy ) file All commands executed during a session, including any mistakes, are saved in this file. Journal (.jnl ) file All commands necessary to recreate the most currently saved model database (.cae ) are saved in this file. Recover (.rec ) fileAll commands necessary to recreate the model database (.cae ) since it was most recently saved are saved in this file. Journaling files can be modified in any way appropriate for the Python language.

32 Starting Abaqus/CAE

33 L1.33 Introduction to Abaqus Starting Abaqus/CAE Three options available: Command line abaqus cae = filename.cae Opens Abaqus/CAE in current directory Start menu (Windows) Opens Abaqus/CAE in startup directory (set during installation) Working directory can be changed (see next slide) Double-click.cae or.odb file in Windows folder Opens Abaqus/CAE in current directory

34 L1.34 Introduction to Abaqus Starting Abaqus/CAE Selecting a working directory Can select a working directory Default is startup directory Subsequent file operations will use this directory for reading/writing Job files will be written to the new working directory This makes it easier to manage job files E.g., keep all job files in a per-job directory

35 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

36 L1.36 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Standard General-purpose finite element code. Extensive and independent libraries: Elements Materials Analysis procedures Robust contact capability

37 L1.37 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Standard analysis types Static stress/displacement analysis: Rate-dependent or rate- independent response Eigenvalue buckling load prediction Articulation of an automotive boot seal

38 L1.38 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Linear dynamics: Natural frequency extraction Modal superposition Harmonic loading Response spectrum analysis Random loading Linear/Nonlinear dynamics: Transient dynamics Implicit or explicit integration Harmonic excitation of a tire

39 L1.39 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Other analysis types available in Abaqus/Standard: Heat transfer Acoustics Mass diffusion Steady-state transport traction braking free rolling Steady-state rolling of a tire on a drum

40 L1.40 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Multiphysics with Abaqus/Standard: Thermal-mechanical analysis Structural-acoustic analysis Thermal-electrical (Joule heating) analysis Linear piezoelectric analysis Fully or partially saturated pore fluid flow-deformation Fluid-structure interaction Thermal stresses in an exhaust manifold

41 L1.41 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit General-purpose finite element code for explicit dynamics Designed for optimal computational performance with large models running many (10,000 to 100,000+) time increments Extensive element and material libraries Robust contact capability

42 L1.42 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) Simulates high speed dynamic events such as drop tests. Explicit algorithm for updating the mechanical response. Drop test of a cell phone

43 L1.43 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) Also a powerful tool for quasi- static metal forming simulations. Annealing is available for multistep forming simulations Rolling of a symmetric I-section

44 L1.44 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Multiphysics with Abaqus/Explicit Thermal-mechanical analysis Fully coupled: Explicit algorithms for both the mechanical and thermal responses Can include adiabatic heating effects Structural-acoustic analysis Fluid-structure interaction Two-stage forging, using ALE— contours of temperature adiabatic fully coupled temperature-displacement

45 L1.45 Introduction to Abaqus Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: ALE Adaptive meshing using ALE techniques allows the robust solution of highly nonlinear problems. Mesh adaptivity is based on solution variables as well as minimum element distortion. Elements concentrate in areas where they are needed. Adaptation is based on boundary curvature. Bulk metal forming High speed impact Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

46 L1.46 Introduction to Abaqus Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) Define a domain in which material can flow for an Eulerian analysis Flow problems Structural problems with extreme deformation Eulerian mesh rod material

47 L1.47 Introduction to Abaqus Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit A general-purpose finite element program for explicit dynamics. Solution procedure does not require iteration. Solves highly discontinuous high- speed dynamic problems efficiently. Coupled-field analyses include: Thermal-mechanical Structural-acoustic FSI Abaqus/Standard A general-purpose finite element program. Nonlinear problems require iterations. Can solve for true static equilibrium in structural simulations. Provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems. Nonstructural applications. Coupled or uncoupled response. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

48 Abaqus Conventions

49 L1.49 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions Units Abaqus uses no inherent set of units. It is the user’s responsibility to use consistent units. Example: N, kg, m, s or N, 10 3 kg, mm, s etc. Common systems of consistent units

50 L1.50 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions Example: Properties of mild steel at room temperature QuantityU.S. unitsSI units Conductivity28.9 Btu/ft hr ºF50 W/m ºC 2.4 Btu/in hr ºF Density15.13 slug/ft 3 (lbf s 2 /ft 4 )7800 kg/m × 10 −3 lbf s 2 /in lbm/in 3 Elastic modulus30 × 10 6 psi207 × 10 9 Pa Specific heat0.11 Btu/lbm ºF460 J/kg ºC Yield stress30 × 10 3 psi207 × 10 6 Pa

51 L1.51 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions Time measures Abaqus keeps track of both total time in an analysis and step time for each analysis step. Time is physically meaningful for some analysis procedures, such as transient dynamics. Time is not physically meaningful for some procedures. In rate- independent, static procedures “time” is just a convenient, monotonically increasing measure for incrementing loads.

52 L1.52 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions local rectangular coordinate system with YSYMM boundary conditions Boundary conditions on a skew edge Coordinate systems For boundary conditions and point loads, the default coordinate system is the rectangular Cartesian system. Alternative local rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical systems can be defined. These local directions do not rotate with the material in large- displacement analyses.

53 L1.53 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions For material directions (i.e., directions associated with an element’s material or integration points) the default coordinate system depends on the element type: Solid elements use global rectangular Cartesian system. Shell and membrane elements use a projection of the global Cartesian system onto the surface. Default material directions for shell and membrane elements Default material directions for solid elements

54 L1.54 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions Alternative rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems may be defined. Affects input: anisotropic material directions. Affects output: stress/strain output directions. Local material directions rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses. 2 1

55 L1.55 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Conventions Degrees of freedom Primary solution variables at the nodes. Available nodal degrees of freedom depend on the element type. Each degree of freedom is labeled with a number: 1=x-displacement, 2=y-displacement, 11=temperature, etc.

56 Documentation

57 L1.57 Introduction to Abaqus Documentation Primary reference materials All documentation is available in HTML and PDF format Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual Abaqus Example Problems Manual Abaqus Benchmarks Manual Abaqus Verification Manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual Abaqus Theory Manual The documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar of Abaqus/CAE.

58 L1.58 Introduction to Abaqus Documentation Additional reference materials Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide (print version available) Installation instructions Abaqus Release Notes Explains changes since previous release Advanced lecture notes on various topics (print only) Tutorials Getting Started with Abaqus: Interactive Edition Getting Started with Abaqus: Keywords Edition Programming Scripting and GUI Toolkit manuals SIMULIA home page

59 L1.59 Introduction to Abaqus Documentation HTML documentation The documentation for Abaqus is organized into a collection, with manuals grouped by function. Viewed through a web browser. Can search entire collection or individual manuals

60 L1.60 Introduction to Abaqus Searching the documentation Enter one or more search terms in the search field Documentation Terms in the search field: Appear in any order May or may not be adjacent Appear within the proximity criterion (default is a single section) The table of contents entry is highlighted The text frame displays the corresponding section

61 L1.61 Introduction to Abaqus Searching the documentation (cont’d) Use quotes to search for exact strings Documentation

62 L1.62 Introduction to Abaqus Documentation Advanced search Advanced search allows you to control the proximity criterion

63 L1.63 Introduction to Abaqus Documentation Advanced search (cont’d)

64 Abaqus Environment Settings

65 L1.65 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Environment Settings The Abaqus environment settings allow you to control various aspects of an Abaqus job’s execution. For example, setting a directory to be used for scratch files, changing the default memory settings, etc. Environment settings hierarchy Abaqus environment settings are processed in the following order: The host-level environment settings in the site directory in the abaqus account directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run on the designated computer. The user-level environment settings in the home directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run in your account. The job-level environment settings in the current working directory. These settings are applied to only the designated Abaqus job. The host-level environment settings are included in the release. You can create an environment file abaqus_v6.env in your home directory and/or current directory.

66 L1.66 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Environment Settings Note: The value of the SCRATCH parameter is platform specific. On UNIX platforms the default value is the value of the $TMPDIR environment variable or /tmp if this variable is not defined. For example, scratch="/tmp" On Windows platforms the default value is the value of the %TEMP% environment variable or \TEMP if this variable is not defined. For example, scratch="c:\\temp" For information on environment file settings refer to: “Using the Abaqus environment settings,” Section of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual.

67 Abaqus Fetch Utility

68 L1.68 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus Fetch Utility The Abaqus fetch utility allows you to extract sample Abaqus files that are provided with each release. Files that may be extracted include input files, journal files, model databases, etc. corresponding to the Abaqus Example, Benchmark, and Verification problems. The utility may also be used to extract scripts that create complete models corresponding to each workshop of this course. The “answer” script name is noted at the end of each workshop. To use the fetch utility enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job= filename where abaqus is the command used to run Abaqus on your system. For example, Abaqus release it might be aliased to abq6101.

69 Abaqus/CAE Checklist

70 L1.70 Introduction to Abaqus Abaqus/CAE Checklist Must HavePartsAt least one Must HaveMaterialsAt least one Must HaveSectionsAt least one Must HaveSection AssignmentsMade at the part level (container) Must HaveAssembly (Instances)At least one part Must HaveSteps (after Initial)Initial created for you Usually NeedBCs (Boundary Conditions)Can be in Initial Step Usually NeedLoadsIn Steps after the Initial Must HaveMeshCan be done on part or assembly Must HaveJobsTo actually run the analysis

71 Working with the Model Tree

72 L1.72 Introduction to Abaqus Working with the Model Tree The Model Tree is a convenient tool for navigating and managing your models and analysis results. The Model Tree provides a visual description of the hierarchy of items in a model. The arrangement of the containers and items in the Model Tree reflects the order in which you are likely to create your model. A similar logic governs the order of modules in the module menu—you create parts before you create the assembly, and you create steps before you create loads.

73 L1.73 Introduction to Abaqus Working with the Model Tree Example: The following figure shows a suggested order to create the cantilever beam model. (Note: This order is not unique.)

74 L1.74 Introduction to Abaqus Working with the Model Tree Alternatively, follow the order of modules in the module menu to create the model. Create the part geometry Position the part for initial configuration. Mesh the part Define analysis steps and output requests Define materials Define and assign sections to parts or regions Not applicable for this example Apply loads and BCs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis history Submit, manage, and monitor analysis jobs Examine results StepLoad Visualization Interaction Job PartAssembly Property Mesh

75 Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

76 L1.76 Introduction to Abaqus Workshop tasks Follow detailed instructions to create a simple cantilever beam model using the Abaqus/CAE modules. Submit a job for analysis. View the analysis results. Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam


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