2 Overview SIMULIA What is Abaqus FEA? Overview of Abaqus/CAE Starting Abaqus/CAEOverview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/ExplicitAbaqus ConventionsDocumentationAbaqus Environment SettingsAbaqus Fetch UtilityAbaqus/CAE ChecklistWorking with the Model TreeWorkshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
4 SIMULIASIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions includingThe Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA Multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problemsLifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual propertyHeadquartered in Providence, RI, USAR&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, FranceGlobal network of regional offices and distributors
5 SIMULIA SIMULIA Headquarters: Providence, Rhode Island Offices: USA: California Indiana MichiganOhio Rhode Island TexasOverseas: Australia Austria ChinaFinland France Germany (2)India Italy Japan (2)Korea Netherlands SwedenUK (2)Representatives:Overseas: Argentina Brazil Czech RepublicMalaysia New Zealand PolandRussia Singapore South AfricaSpain Taiwan TurkeySIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers realistic simulation solutions including the Abaqus product suite.
7 What is Abaqus FEA?Suite of finite element analysis modules
8 What is Abaqus FEA?The structural analysis “solver” modules, Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, are complementary and integrated analysis tools.*Abaqus/Standard is a general-purpose finite element module. It provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems, including many nonstructural applications.Abaqus/Explicit is an explicit dynamics finite element module.Abaqus/CAE incorporates the analysis modules into a Complete Abaqus Environment for modeling, managing, and monitoring Abaqus analyses and visualizing results.* Abaqus/CFD is a computational fluid dynamics analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.
10 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Integrates modeling, analysis, job management, and results evaluation seamlessly.Provides the most complete interface with the Abaqus solver programs available.Uses neutral database files that are machine independent.Can be customized to create application-specific systems.Abaqus/CAE main user interface
11 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Modern graphical user interface (GUI) of menus, icons, and dialog boxesMenus provide access to all capabilities.Icons accelerate access to frequently used features.Dialog boxes allow you to input alphanumeric information and to select various options.Mechanical property submenuElastic material formVisualization toolbox icons
12 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Consistent environmentFunctionality is presented in modules.Each module contains a logical subset of the overall functionality.Once you understand the presentation of one module, you can easily understand the presentation of the other modules.
13 Overview of Abaqus/CAE PartPropertyAssemblyCreate the part geometry (and regions for sections, if necessary)Define materialsDefine additional part regionsDefine and assign sections to parts or regionsPosition parts for initial configuration.StepInteractionLoadDefine analysis steps and output requestsDefine contact and other interactions on regions or named sets, and assign them to steps in the analysis historyApply loads, BCs, and ICs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis historyMeshJobVisualizationSplit assembly into meshable regions and meshSubmit, manage, and monitor analysis jobsExamine results
14 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Model Tree and the Results TreeThe Model Tree provides you with a graphical overview of your model and the objects that it contains.The Results Tree is used to display analysis results from output databases as well as session-specific data such as X–Y plots.Both trees provide shortcuts to much of the functionality of the main menu bar, the module toolboxes, and the various managers.Some features of the Model and Results trees are discussed next.
15 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Tree featuresNavigation toolContext sensitive RMB actions edit/create/suppress/queryCan effectively build most of your model from the treeModel query/auditingE.g., shows number of sections, materials, constraints currently definedShows status of certain features/items (invalid part, suppressed feature)Comprehensive view of Abaqus model data“Containers” expand to show objects and their hierarchyStep dependent objects (e.g., BCs) appear in the STEP and LOAD containers
16 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Tool tipsFloat the mouse over a container or item…“Pruning” the treeYou can set a certain container as the new “root” to reduce clutterKeyboard shortcutsHide/showExpand/collapseSearchDelete itemsSwitch contextFiltering
17 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Models are feature-based and parametricA feature is a meaningful piece of the design. Models are constructed from numerous features; for example:Geometric featuresSolid extrusion, wire, cut, fillet, etc.Assembly featuresWheel must be concentric with the axle, the blank lies exactly in contact with the rigid die, etc.Mesh featuresPartition the mesh into different regions for different meshing techniques, seed different edges with different mesh densities, etc.cutsolid extrusionfilletPart with several annotated features
18 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Solid extrusion parameterssketch of extrusion cross-sectionextrusion depthA parameter is a modifiable quantity that provides additional information for a feature; for example:Solid extrusion parametersSketch of extrusion cross-section, depth of extrusion.CutSketch of cut cross-section, depth of cut.Fillet parameterFillet radius.
19 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Features often have parent-child relationships, such that the existence of the child depends on the existence of the parent; for example:Delete the solid extrusion, and the hole and fillet cannot exist.Delete the part, and the mesh cannot exist.Abaqus/CAE always asks to make sure that you want to delete the parent and its child features.cutsolid extrusionfilletparent: solid extrusionchild: cutchild: filletExample of Parent-Child Relationships among Features
20 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Features can be modified by editing their parameters.Aspects of the model can be regenerated.Parametric studies are easy and natural.Features can also be deleted or temporarily suppressed with the option to resume them later.If a parent feature is deleted or suppressed, all its child features are also deleted or suppressed.
21 Overview of Abaqus/CAE InteroperabilityAbaqus/CAE is based on the concepts of parts and assemblies, which are common to many CAD systems.Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE.Geometry can be imported from other packages and exported to other packages.Existing Abaqus meshes can be imported for further processing.Individual models can be copied between databases.
22 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Dockable toolbarsAllow you to modify the layout and appearance of toolbarsIndividual toolbars can be moved by dragging the toolbar gripToolbars can be “docked” at any of four docking regions located around the main windowFloating toolbars can be located anywhereOrientation of floating toolbars can be controlledDock Sites
23 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Custom toolbarsInclude shortcuts to functions not in standard toolbars or toolboxesCan collect commonly used functionsTo add a function to a custom toolbar:Tools → CustomizeSelect the function in the Customize dialog boxDrag it onto the custom toolbar.Assign an icon to represent the toolbarCan be moved, docked, floated, or hidden in the same way as standard toolbars
24 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Custom keyboard shortcutsAvailable for most functions.E.g., the key combination [Shift] + [Ctrl] + P may be assigned to Create Part dialog boxDefault keyboard shortcuts for common functions (save, print, etc.) can also be reassigned.Keyboard shortcuts must use one of the following keys or key combinations:Any function key except F1[Alt] + [Shift] + key[Ctrl] + key. You can also add [Alt] or [Shift] to modify any keyboard shortcut that includes the [Ctrl] key.
25 Overview of Abaqus/CAE View manipulationToolbar to control view (pan, zoom, rotate, etc.).Alternatively, can use a combination of keyboard and mouse actions:Rotate: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB1.Pan: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB2.Zoom: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB3.You can reconfigure these combinations to mimic the view manipulation interfaces used by other common CAD applicationsNote that there is a limitation with the use of the HyperView mouse configuration; specifically, with the HyperView setting it is not possible to deselect entities using [Ctrl ]+ [MB1] since this automatically invokes the rotation tool. If you have a student who uses HyperView, please warn them of this limitation.
26 Overview of Abaqus/CAE 3D compassView manipulation toolProvides a quick and convenient way to change model viewAppears by default in each viewport; can be turned off if necessaryUses three axes to indicate current model orientationCan be clicked, dragged and oriented; by clicking different areas, specialized view manipulations can be performed:Rotate freely about the model's center of rotation.Rotate about a fixed axis.Pan camera along a fixed axis.Pan camera within a fixed plane.Apply a predefined view.
27 Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is a model database file (extension .cae)?Contains all the information for any number of models.Typically contains one model or several related models.Only one model database can be opened in Abaqus/CAE at a time.Model 1Model 2Model 3Model database (.cae)
28 Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is a model?Contains all the necessary information for an analysis.Contains any number of parts and their associated properties.Is independent of other models in the model database.Objects such as parts and materials can be copied between different models in the same database.Contains a single assembly of part instances, including the associated contact interactions, loads and boundary conditions, mesh, and analysis history.Model 1partsmaterial properties1 assembly1 analysis history
29 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Models can be imported into one database from anotherModel data from the imported database is copied into the current database.E.g., parts, sections, assemblies, materials, loads, BCs, etc.Analysis job definitions and custom data are not copiedUser AUser BMaster Model=+
30 Overview of Abaqus/CAE What is Python?Command language used by Abaqus/CAE.Uses range from command scripting to creating customized applications.Powerful and easy-to-use public domain, object-oriented programming language.There are several books available on Python programming.Additional learning materials are available online atIt is not necessary to learn Python programming to use Abaqus/CAE.
31 Overview of Abaqus/CAE Commands issued during an Abaqus/CAE session are saved in journaling files containing Python scripts.Replay (.rpy) file All commands executed during a session, including any mistakes, are saved in this file.Journal (.jnl) file All commands necessary to recreate the most currently saved model database (.cae) are saved in this file.Recover (.rec) file All commands necessary to recreate the model database (.cae) since it was most recently saved are saved in this file.Journaling files can be modified in any way appropriate for the Python language.
33 Starting Abaqus/CAE Three options available: Command line abaqus cae = filename.caeOpens Abaqus/CAE in current directoryStart menu (Windows)Opens Abaqus/CAE in startup directory (set during installation)Working directory can be changed (see next slide)Double-click .cae or .odb file in Windows folder
34 Starting Abaqus/CAE Selecting a working directory Can select a working directoryDefault is startup directorySubsequent file operations will use this directory for reading/writingJob files will be written to the new working directoryThis makes it easier to manage job filesE.g., keep all job files in a per-job directory
35 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
36 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit General-purpose finite element code.Extensive and independent libraries:ElementsMaterialsAnalysis proceduresRobust contact capability
37 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Standard analysis typesStatic stress/displacement analysis:Rate-dependent or rate-independent responseEigenvalue buckling load predictionArticulation of an automotive boot seal
38 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Linear dynamics:Natural frequency extractionModal superpositionHarmonic loadingResponse spectrum analysisRandom loadingLinear/Nonlinear dynamics:Transient dynamicsImplicit or explicit integrationHarmonic excitation of a tire
39 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Other analysis types available in Abaqus/Standard:Heat transferAcousticsMass diffusionSteady-state transporttractionbrakingfree rollingSteady-state rolling of a tire on a drum
40 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Multiphysics with Abaqus/Standard:Thermal-mechanical analysisStructural-acoustic analysisThermal-electrical (Joule heating) analysisLinear piezoelectric analysisFully or partially saturated pore fluid flow-deformationFluid-structure interactionThermal stresses in an exhaust manifold
41 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit General-purpose finite element code for explicit dynamicsDesigned for optimal computational performance with large models running many (10,000 to 100,000+) time incrementsExtensive element and material librariesRobust contact capability
42 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d)Simulates high speed dynamic events such as drop tests.Explicit algorithm for updating the mechanical response.Drop test of a cell phone
43 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d)Also a powerful tool for quasi-static metal forming simulations.Annealing is available for multistep forming simulationsRolling of a symmetric I-section
44 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Multiphysics with Abaqus/ExplicitThermal-mechanical analysisFully coupled: Explicit algorithms for both the mechanical and thermal responsesCan include adiabatic heating effectsStructural-acoustic analysisFluid-structure interactionadiabaticfully coupled temperature-displacementTwo-stage forging, using ALE—contours of temperature
45 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: ALEAdaptive meshing using ALE techniques allows the robust solution of highly nonlinear problems.Mesh adaptivity is based on solution variables as well as minimum element distortion.Elements concentrate in areas where they are needed.Adaptation is based on boundary curvature.Bulk metal formingHigh speed impact
46 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL)Define a domain in which material can flow for an Eulerian analysisFlow problemsStructural problems with extreme deformationEulerian meshrod materialAnimated slide – click to show rod impact example and click again show the results at the final frame and “Mesh refinement needed …” text box.Abaqus/Explicit also provides elements that use a pure Eulerian formulation, in which the nodes stay fixed and the material flows through the mesh. Although the Eulerian formulation does make it more difficult to track material boundaries, it has the advantage of completely eliminating mesh distortion due to material deformation.
47 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/ExplicitAbaqus/StandardA general-purpose finite element program.Nonlinear problems require iterations.Can solve for true static equilibrium in structural simulations.Provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems.Nonstructural applications.Coupled or uncoupled response.Abaqus/ExplicitA general-purpose finite element program for explicit dynamics.Solution procedure does not require iteration.Solves highly discontinuous high-speed dynamic problems efficiently.Coupled-field analyses include:Thermal-mechanicalStructural-acousticFSI
51 Abaqus Conventions Time measures Abaqus keeps track of both total time in an analysis and step time for each analysis step.Time is physically meaningful for some analysis procedures, such as transient dynamics.Time is not physically meaningful for some procedures. In rate-independent, static procedures “time” is just a convenient, monotonically increasing measure for incrementing loads.
52 Boundary conditions on a skew edge Abaqus ConventionsCoordinate systemsFor boundary conditions and point loads, the default coordinate system is the rectangular Cartesian system.Alternative local rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical systems can be defined.These local directions do not rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses.local rectangular coordinate system with YSYMM boundary conditionsBoundary conditions on a skew edge
53 Default material directions for shell and membrane elements Abaqus ConventionsFor material directions (i.e., directions associated with an element’s material or integration points) the default coordinate system depends on the element type:Solid elements use global rectangular Cartesian system.Shell and membrane elements use a projection of the global Cartesian system onto the surface.Default material directions for shell and membrane elementsDefault material directions for solid elements
54 Abaqus ConventionsAlternative rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems may be defined.Affects input: anisotropic material directions.Affects output: stress/strain output directions.Local material directions rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses.21
55 Abaqus Conventions Degrees of freedom Primary solution variables at the nodes.Available nodal degrees of freedom depend on the element type.Each degree of freedom is labeled with a number: 1=x-displacement, 2=y-displacement, 11=temperature, etc.
57 Documentation Primary reference materials All documentation is available in HTML and PDF formatAbaqus Analysis User’s ManualAbaqus/CAE User’s ManualAbaqus Example Problems ManualAbaqus Benchmarks ManualAbaqus Verification ManualAbaqus Keywords Reference ManualAbaqus User Subroutines Reference ManualAbaqus Theory ManualThe documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar of Abaqus/CAE.
58 Documentation Additional reference materials Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide (print version available)Installation instructionsAbaqus Release NotesExplains changes since previous releaseAdvanced lecture notes on various topics (print only)TutorialsGetting Started with Abaqus: Interactive EditionGetting Started with Abaqus: Keywords EditionProgrammingScripting and GUI Toolkit manualsSIMULIA home page
59 Documentation HTML documentation The documentation for Abaqus is organized into a collection, with manuals grouped by function.Viewed through a web browser.Can search entire collection or individual manuals
60 Documentation Searching the documentation Enter one or more search terms in the search fieldTerms in the search field:Appear in any orderMay or may not be adjacentAppear within the proximity criterion (default is a single section)The table of contents entry is highlightedThe text frame displays the corresponding section
61 Documentation Searching the documentation (cont’d) Use quotes to search for exact strings
62 Documentation Advanced search Advanced search allows you to control the proximity criterion
65 Abaqus Environment Settings The Abaqus environment settings allow you to control various aspects of an Abaqus job’s execution.For example, setting a directory to be used for scratch files, changing the default memory settings, etc.Environment settings hierarchyAbaqus environment settings are processed in the following order:The host-level environment settings in the site directory in the abaqus account directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run on the designated computer.The user-level environment settings in the home directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run in your account.The job-level environment settings in the current working directory. These settings are applied to only the designated Abaqus job.The host-level environment settings are included in the release.You can create an environment file abaqus_v6.env in your home directory and/or current directory.
66 Abaqus Environment Settings Note: The value of the SCRATCH parameter is platform specific.On UNIX platforms the default value is the value of the $TMPDIR environment variable or /tmp if this variable is not defined. For example,scratch="/tmp"On Windows platforms the default value is the value of the %TEMP% environment variable or \TEMP if this variable is not defined. For example,scratch="c:\\temp"For information on environment file settings refer to:“Using the Abaqus environment settings,” Section 3.3.1 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual.
68 Abaqus Fetch UtilityThe Abaqus fetch utility allows you to extract sample Abaqus files that are provided with each release.Files that may be extracted include input files, journal files, model databases, etc. corresponding to the Abaqus Example, Benchmark, and Verification problems.The utility may also be used to extract scripts that create complete models corresponding to each workshop of this course.The “answer” script name is noted at the end of each workshop.To use the fetch utility enter the following command at the operating system prompt:abaqus fetch job=filenamewhere abaqus is the command used to run Abaqus on your system.For example, Abaqus release it might be aliased to abq6101.
70 Abaqus/CAE Checklist Must Have Parts At least one Materials Sections Section AssignmentsMade at the part level (container)Assembly (Instances)At least one partSteps (after Initial)Initial created for youUsually NeedBCs (Boundary Conditions)Can be in Initial StepLoadsIn Steps after the InitialMeshCan be done on part or assemblyJobsTo actually run the analysis
72 Working with the Model Tree The Model Tree is a convenient tool for navigating and managing your models and analysis results.The Model Tree provides a visual description of the hierarchy of items in a model.The arrangement of the containers and items in the Model Tree reflects the order in which you are likely to create your model.A similar logic governs the order of modules in the module menu—you create parts before you create the assembly, and you create steps before you create loads.
73 Working with the Model Tree Example: The following figure shows a suggested order to create the cantilever beam model . (Note: This order is not unique.)
74 Working with the Model Tree Alternatively, follow the order of modules in the module menu to create the model.Create the part geometryPosition the part for initial configuration.Mesh the partDefine analysis steps and output requestsDefine materialsDefine and assign sections to parts or regionsNot applicable for this exampleApply loads and BCs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis historySubmit, manage, and monitor analysis jobsExamine resultsStepLoadVisualizationInteractionJobPartAssemblyPropertyMesh
75 Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
76 Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Workshop tasksFollow detailed instructions to create a simple cantilever beam model using the Abaqus/CAE modules.Submit a job for analysis.View the analysis results.