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Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1.

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1 Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1

2 Overview SIMULIA What is Abaqus FEA? Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Starting Abaqus/CAE Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus Conventions Documentation Abaqus Environment Settings Abaqus Fetch Utility Abaqus/CAE Checklist Working with the Model Tree Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam


4 SIMULIA SIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions including The Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA  Multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems Lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA R&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, France Global network of regional offices and distributors

5 SIMULIA SIMULIA Headquarters: Providence, Rhode Island Offices:
USA: California Indiana Michigan Ohio Rhode Island Texas Overseas: Australia Austria China Finland France Germany (2) India Italy Japan (2) Korea Netherlands Sweden UK (2) Representatives: Overseas: Argentina Brazil Czech Republic Malaysia New Zealand Poland Russia Singapore South Africa Spain Taiwan Turkey SIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers realistic simulation solutions including the Abaqus product suite.

6 What is Abaqus FEA?

7 What is Abaqus FEA? Suite of finite element analysis modules

8 What is Abaqus FEA? The structural analysis “solver” modules, Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, are complementary and integrated analysis tools.* Abaqus/Standard is a general-purpose finite element module. It provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems, including many nonstructural applications. Abaqus/Explicit is an explicit dynamics finite element module. Abaqus/CAE incorporates the analysis modules into a Complete Abaqus Environment for modeling, managing, and monitoring Abaqus analyses and visualizing results. * Abaqus/CFD is a computational fluid dynamics analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.

9 Overview of Abaqus/CAE

10 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Integrates modeling, analysis, job management, and results evaluation seamlessly. Provides the most complete interface with the Abaqus solver programs available. Uses neutral database files that are machine independent. Can be customized to create application-specific systems. Abaqus/CAE main user interface

11 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Modern graphical user interface (GUI) of menus, icons, and dialog boxes Menus provide access to all capabilities. Icons accelerate access to frequently used features. Dialog boxes allow you to input alphanumeric information and to select various options. Mechanical property submenu Elastic material form Visualization toolbox icons

12 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Consistent environment Functionality is presented in modules. Each module contains a logical subset of the overall functionality. Once you understand the presentation of one module, you can easily understand the presentation of the other modules.

13 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Part Property Assembly Create the part geometry (and regions for sections, if necessary) Define materials Define additional part regions Define and assign sections to parts or regions Position parts for initial configuration. Step Interaction Load Define analysis steps and output requests Define contact and other interactions on regions or named sets, and assign them to steps in the analysis history Apply loads, BCs, and ICs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis history Mesh Job Visualization Split assembly into meshable regions and mesh Submit, manage, and monitor analysis jobs Examine results

14 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Model Tree and the Results Tree The Model Tree provides you with a graphical overview of your model and the objects that it contains. The Results Tree is used to display analysis results from output databases as well as session-specific data such as X–Y plots. Both trees provide shortcuts to much of the functionality of the main menu bar, the module toolboxes, and the various managers. Some features of the Model and Results trees are discussed next.

15 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Tree features Navigation tool Context sensitive RMB actions  edit/create/suppress/query Can effectively build most of your model from the tree Model query/auditing E.g., shows number of sections, materials, constraints currently defined Shows status of certain features/items (invalid part, suppressed feature) Comprehensive view of Abaqus model data “Containers” expand to show objects and their hierarchy Step dependent objects (e.g., BCs) appear in the STEP and LOAD containers

16 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Tool tips Float the mouse over a container or item… “Pruning” the tree You can set a certain container as the new “root” to reduce clutter Keyboard shortcuts Hide/show Expand/collapse Search Delete items Switch context Filtering

17 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Models are feature-based and parametric A feature is a meaningful piece of the design. Models are constructed from numerous features; for example: Geometric features Solid extrusion, wire, cut, fillet, etc. Assembly features Wheel must be concentric with the axle, the blank lies exactly in contact with the rigid die, etc. Mesh features Partition the mesh into different regions for different meshing techniques, seed different edges with different mesh densities, etc. cut solid extrusion fillet Part with several annotated features

18 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Solid extrusion parameters sketch of extrusion cross-section extrusion depth A parameter is a modifiable quantity that provides additional information for a feature; for example: Solid extrusion parameters Sketch of extrusion cross-section, depth of extrusion. Cut Sketch of cut cross-section, depth of cut. Fillet parameter Fillet radius.

19 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Features often have parent-child relationships, such that the existence of the child depends on the existence of the parent; for example: Delete the solid extrusion, and the hole and fillet cannot exist. Delete the part, and the mesh cannot exist. Abaqus/CAE always asks to make sure that you want to delete the parent and its child features. cut solid extrusion fillet parent: solid extrusion child: cut child: fillet Example of Parent-Child Relationships among Features

20 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Features can be modified by editing their parameters. Aspects of the model can be regenerated. Parametric studies are easy and natural. Features can also be deleted or temporarily suppressed with the option to resume them later. If a parent feature is deleted or suppressed, all its child features are also deleted or suppressed.

21 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Interoperability Abaqus/CAE is based on the concepts of parts and assemblies, which are common to many CAD systems. Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE. Geometry can be imported from other packages and exported to other packages. Existing Abaqus meshes can be imported for further processing. Individual models can be copied between databases.

22 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Dockable toolbars Allow you to modify the layout and appearance of toolbars Individual toolbars can be moved by dragging the toolbar grip Toolbars can be “docked” at any of four docking regions located around the main window Floating toolbars can be located anywhere Orientation of floating toolbars can be controlled Dock Sites

23 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Custom toolbars Include shortcuts to functions not in standard toolbars or toolboxes Can collect commonly used functions To add a function to a custom toolbar: Tools → Customize Select the function in the Customize dialog box Drag it onto the custom toolbar. Assign an icon to represent the toolbar Can be moved, docked, floated, or hidden in the same way as standard toolbars

24 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Custom keyboard shortcuts Available for most functions. E.g., the key combination [Shift] + [Ctrl] + P may be assigned to Create Part dialog box Default keyboard shortcuts for common functions (save, print, etc.) can also be reassigned. Keyboard shortcuts must use one of the following keys or key combinations: Any function key except F1 [Alt] + [Shift] + key [Ctrl] + key. You can also add [Alt] or [Shift] to modify any keyboard shortcut that includes the [Ctrl] key.

25 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
View manipulation Toolbar to control view (pan, zoom, rotate, etc.). Alternatively, can use a combination of keyboard and mouse actions: Rotate: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB1. Pan: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB2. Zoom: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB3. You can reconfigure these combinations to mimic the view manipulation interfaces used by other common CAD applications Note that there is a limitation with the use of the HyperView mouse configuration; specifically, with the HyperView setting it is not possible to deselect entities using [Ctrl ]+ [MB1] since this automatically invokes the rotation tool.  If you have a student who uses HyperView, please warn them of this limitation.

26 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
3D compass View manipulation tool Provides a quick and convenient way to change model view Appears by default in each viewport; can be turned off if necessary Uses three axes to indicate current model orientation Can be clicked, dragged and oriented; by clicking different areas, specialized view manipulations can be performed: Rotate freely about the model's center of rotation. Rotate about a fixed axis. Pan camera along a fixed axis. Pan camera within a fixed plane. Apply a predefined view.

27 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
What is a model database file (extension .cae)? Contains all the information for any number of models. Typically contains one model or several related models. Only one model database can be opened in Abaqus/CAE at a time. Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model database (.cae)

28 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
What is a model? Contains all the necessary information for an analysis. Contains any number of parts and their associated properties. Is independent of other models in the model database. Objects such as parts and materials can be copied between different models in the same database. Contains a single assembly of part instances, including the associated contact interactions, loads and boundary conditions, mesh, and analysis history. Model 1 parts material properties 1 assembly 1 analysis history

29 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Models can be imported into one database from another Model data from the imported database is copied into the current database. E.g., parts, sections, assemblies, materials, loads, BCs, etc. Analysis job definitions and custom data are not copied User A User B Master Model = +

30 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
What is Python? Command language used by Abaqus/CAE. Uses range from command scripting to creating customized applications. Powerful and easy-to-use public domain, object-oriented programming language. There are several books available on Python programming. Additional learning materials are available online at It is not necessary to learn Python programming to use Abaqus/CAE.

31 Overview of Abaqus/CAE
Commands issued during an Abaqus/CAE session are saved in journaling files containing Python scripts. Replay (.rpy) file All commands executed during a session, including any mistakes, are saved in this file. Journal (.jnl) file All commands necessary to recreate the most currently saved model database (.cae) are saved in this file. Recover (.rec) file All commands necessary to recreate the model database (.cae) since it was most recently saved are saved in this file. Journaling files can be modified in any way appropriate for the Python language.

32 Starting Abaqus/CAE

33 Starting Abaqus/CAE Three options available: Command line
abaqus cae = filename.cae Opens Abaqus/CAE in current directory Start menu (Windows) Opens Abaqus/CAE in startup directory (set during installation) Working directory can be changed (see next slide) Double-click .cae or .odb file in Windows folder

34 Starting Abaqus/CAE Selecting a working directory
Can select a working directory Default is startup directory Subsequent file operations will use this directory for reading/writing Job files will be written to the new working directory This makes it easier to manage job files E.g., keep all job files in a per-job directory

35 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

36 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
General-purpose finite element code. Extensive and independent libraries: Elements Materials Analysis procedures Robust contact capability

37 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Abaqus/Standard analysis types Static stress/displacement analysis: Rate-dependent or rate-independent response Eigenvalue buckling load prediction Articulation of an automotive boot seal

38 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Linear dynamics: Natural frequency extraction Modal superposition Harmonic loading Response spectrum analysis Random loading Linear/Nonlinear dynamics: Transient dynamics Implicit or explicit integration Harmonic excitation of a tire

39 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Other analysis types available in Abaqus/Standard: Heat transfer Acoustics Mass diffusion Steady-state transport traction braking free rolling Steady-state rolling of a tire on a drum

40 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Multiphysics with Abaqus/Standard: Thermal-mechanical analysis Structural-acoustic analysis Thermal-electrical (Joule heating) analysis Linear piezoelectric analysis Fully or partially saturated pore fluid flow-deformation Fluid-structure interaction Thermal stresses in an exhaust manifold

41 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
General-purpose finite element code for explicit dynamics Designed for optimal computational performance with large models running many (10,000 to 100,000+) time increments Extensive element and material libraries Robust contact capability

42 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) Simulates high speed dynamic events such as drop tests. Explicit algorithm for updating the mechanical response. Drop test of a cell phone

43 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) Also a powerful tool for quasi-static metal forming simulations. Annealing is available for multistep forming simulations Rolling of a symmetric I-section

44 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Multiphysics with Abaqus/Explicit Thermal-mechanical analysis Fully coupled: Explicit algorithms for both the mechanical and thermal responses Can include adiabatic heating effects Structural-acoustic analysis Fluid-structure interaction adiabatic fully coupled temperature-displacement Two-stage forging, using ALE—contours of temperature

45 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: ALE Adaptive meshing using ALE techniques allows the robust solution of highly nonlinear problems. Mesh adaptivity is based on solution variables as well as minimum element distortion. Elements concentrate in areas where they are needed. Adaptation is based on boundary curvature. Bulk metal forming High speed impact

46 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) Define a domain in which material can flow for an Eulerian analysis Flow problems Structural problems with extreme deformation Eulerian mesh rod material Animated slide – click to show rod impact example and click again show the results at the final frame and “Mesh refinement needed …” text box. Abaqus/Explicit also provides elements that use a pure Eulerian formulation, in which the nodes stay fixed and the material flows through the mesh. Although the Eulerian formulation does make it more difficult to track material boundaries, it has the advantage of completely eliminating mesh distortion due to material deformation.

47 Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Standard A general-purpose finite element program. Nonlinear problems require iterations. Can solve for true static equilibrium in structural simulations. Provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems. Nonstructural applications. Coupled or uncoupled response. Abaqus/Explicit A general-purpose finite element program for explicit dynamics. Solution procedure does not require iteration. Solves highly discontinuous high-speed dynamic problems efficiently. Coupled-field analyses include: Thermal-mechanical Structural-acoustic FSI

48 Abaqus Conventions

49 Abaqus Conventions Units Abaqus uses no inherent set of units.
It is the user’s responsibility to use consistent units. Example: N, kg, m, s or N, 103 kg, mm, s etc. Common systems of consistent units

50 Abaqus Conventions Example: Properties of mild steel at room temperature Quantity U.S. units SI units Conductivity 28.9 Btu/ft hr ºF 50 W/m ºC 2.4 Btu/in hr ºF Density 15.13 slug/ft3 (lbf s2/ft4) 7800 kg/m3 0.730 × 10−3 lbf s2/in4 0.282 lbm/in3 Elastic modulus 30 × 106 psi 207 × 109 Pa Specific heat 0.11 Btu/lbm ºF 460 J/kg ºC Yield stress 30 × 103 psi 207 × 106 Pa

51 Abaqus Conventions Time measures
Abaqus keeps track of both total time in an analysis and step time for each analysis step. Time is physically meaningful for some analysis procedures, such as transient dynamics. Time is not physically meaningful for some procedures. In rate-independent, static procedures “time” is just a convenient, monotonically increasing measure for incrementing loads.

52 Boundary conditions on a skew edge
Abaqus Conventions Coordinate systems For boundary conditions and point loads, the default coordinate system is the rectangular Cartesian system. Alternative local rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical systems can be defined. These local directions do not rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses. local rectangular coordinate system with YSYMM boundary conditions Boundary conditions on a skew edge

53 Default material directions for shell and membrane elements
Abaqus Conventions For material directions (i.e., directions associated with an element’s material or integration points) the default coordinate system depends on the element type: Solid elements use global rectangular Cartesian system. Shell and membrane elements use a projection of the global Cartesian system onto the surface. Default material directions for shell and membrane elements Default material directions for solid elements

54 Abaqus Conventions Alternative rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems may be defined. Affects input: anisotropic material directions. Affects output: stress/strain output directions. Local material directions rotate with the material in large-displacement analyses. 2 1

55 Abaqus Conventions Degrees of freedom
Primary solution variables at the nodes. Available nodal degrees of freedom depend on the element type. Each degree of freedom is labeled with a number: 1=x-displacement, 2=y-displacement, 11=temperature, etc.

56 Documentation

57 Documentation Primary reference materials
All documentation is available in HTML and PDF format Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual Abaqus Example Problems Manual Abaqus Benchmarks Manual Abaqus Verification Manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual Abaqus Theory Manual The documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar of Abaqus/CAE.

58 Documentation Additional reference materials
Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide (print version available) Installation instructions Abaqus Release Notes Explains changes since previous release Advanced lecture notes on various topics (print only) Tutorials Getting Started with Abaqus: Interactive Edition Getting Started with Abaqus: Keywords Edition Programming Scripting and GUI Toolkit manuals SIMULIA home page

59 Documentation HTML documentation
The documentation for Abaqus is organized into a collection, with manuals grouped by function. Viewed through a web browser. Can search entire collection or individual manuals

60 Documentation Searching the documentation
Enter one or more search terms in the search field Terms in the search field: Appear in any order May or may not be adjacent Appear within the proximity criterion (default is a single section) The table of contents entry is highlighted The text frame displays the corresponding section

61 Documentation Searching the documentation (cont’d)
Use quotes to search for exact strings

62 Documentation Advanced search
Advanced search allows you to control the proximity criterion

63 Documentation Advanced search (cont’d)

64 Abaqus Environment Settings

65 Abaqus Environment Settings
The Abaqus environment settings allow you to control various aspects of an Abaqus job’s execution. For example, setting a directory to be used for scratch files, changing the default memory settings, etc. Environment settings hierarchy Abaqus environment settings are processed in the following order: The host-level environment settings in the site directory in the abaqus account directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run on the designated computer. The user-level environment settings in the home directory. These settings are applied to all Abaqus jobs run in your account. The job-level environment settings in the current working directory. These settings are applied to only the designated Abaqus job. The host-level environment settings are included in the release. You can create an environment file abaqus_v6.env in your home directory and/or current directory.

66 Abaqus Environment Settings
Note: The value of the SCRATCH parameter is platform specific. On UNIX platforms the default value is the value of the $TMPDIR environment variable or /tmp if this variable is not defined. For example, scratch="/tmp" On Windows platforms the default value is the value of the %TEMP% environment variable or \TEMP if this variable is not defined. For example, scratch="c:\\temp" For information on environment file settings refer to: “Using the Abaqus environment settings,” Section 3.3.1 of the Abaqus Analysis User's Manual.

67 Abaqus Fetch Utility

68 Abaqus Fetch Utility The Abaqus fetch utility allows you to extract sample Abaqus files that are provided with each release. Files that may be extracted include input files, journal files, model databases, etc. corresponding to the Abaqus Example, Benchmark, and Verification problems. The utility may also be used to extract scripts that create complete models corresponding to each workshop of this course. The “answer” script name is noted at the end of each workshop. To use the fetch utility enter the following command at the operating system prompt: abaqus fetch job=filename where abaqus is the command used to run Abaqus on your system. For example, Abaqus release it might be aliased to abq6101.

69 Abaqus/CAE Checklist

70 Abaqus/CAE Checklist Must Have Parts At least one Materials Sections
Section Assignments Made at the part level (container) Assembly (Instances) At least one part Steps (after Initial) Initial created for you Usually Need BCs (Boundary Conditions) Can be in Initial Step Loads In Steps after the Initial Mesh Can be done on part or assembly Jobs To actually run the analysis

71 Working with the Model Tree

72 Working with the Model Tree
The Model Tree is a convenient tool for navigating and managing your models and analysis results. The Model Tree provides a visual description of the hierarchy of items in a model. The arrangement of the containers and items in the Model Tree reflects the order in which you are likely to create your model. A similar logic governs the order of modules in the module menu—you create parts before you create the assembly, and you create steps before you create loads.

73 Working with the Model Tree
Example: The following figure shows a suggested order to create the cantilever beam model . (Note: This order is not unique.)

74 Working with the Model Tree
Alternatively, follow the order of modules in the module menu to create the model. Create the part geometry Position the part for initial configuration. Mesh the part Define analysis steps and output requests Define materials Define and assign sections to parts or regions Not applicable for this example Apply loads and BCs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis history Submit, manage, and monitor analysis jobs Examine results Step Load Visualization Interaction Job Part Assembly Property Mesh

75 Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

76 Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam
Workshop tasks Follow detailed instructions to create a simple cantilever beam model using the Abaqus/CAE modules. Submit a job for analysis. View the analysis results.

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