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MINEX II An evaluation of fingerprint Match-on-Card technology

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Presentation on theme: "MINEX II An evaluation of fingerprint Match-on-Card technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 MINEX II An evaluation of fingerprint Match-on-Card technology
Patrick Grother Biometrics 2007, London, October 18, 2007

2 Overview MINEX II – Match-on-card Compact iris interoperability test
Standards for multimodal biometrics NIST Biometric Quality Workshop

3 MINEX II – The NIST Context
NIST Biometric Testing FRVT (face) 1:N Fingerprint ICE (iris) Quality Data for Credentials FpVTE (2003) US Gov. Systems ELFT (latent) Slap Segmentation PFT (ongoing)

4 MINEX II – The NIST Context
NIST Support for Biometric Elements for Identity Credentials sBMOC MINEX Compact Iris Standards SC37 WG3 MINEX I 2004 Initial evaluation Ongoing MINEX PIV MINEX II Match-on-Card MINEX III Minutia quality calibration

5 Ongoing MINEX Compliant and Eligible for GSA Certification
Template Generators Cogent Systems Dermalog Identification Systems Bioscrypt Sagem Morpho Neurotechnologija Innovatrics NEC Cross Match Technologies L1 / Identix Precise Biometrics XTec SecuGen BIO-key International Motorola Aware Sonda Technologies Matchers Cogent Systems Dermalog Identification Systems Bioscrypt Sagem Morpho Neurotechnologija Innovatrics NEC L1 / Identix XTec SecuGen BIO-key International Motorola Aware Startek Engineering 16 suppliers 14 suppliers

6 MINEX II – Why MOC? Match-on-Card – Why Match-on-Card – Why not?
Cards are ubiquitous ISO/IEC 7816 cards have been certified No central database Biometric reference never leaves the card Match-on-Card – Why not? Verification template must be made off card And passed to the card A matcher on every credential Computational resources …

7 MINEX II – Why? Hypothesis: MOC implementations have same accuracy
Why might that be? MOC is not new. Same companies are involved Why not? Limited computational resources Stack space, registers Integer arithmetic Smaller instruction sets Smaller templates MOC typically uses fewer minutiae Reduced angular resolution in ISO-CC format Asymmetric Algorithms MINEX II is intended of as a definitive, public, independent, simultaneous measurement of the algorithmic accuracy and speed of MOC implementations

8 Not in MINEX II Scope Card reliability, robustness Card vulnerability
Security evaluation System-on-card Proprietary templates Business model, economics Card conformance to 7816-x Contact vs. contactless

9 Two NIST programs: MINEX II + sBMOC
Two separate but related programs: MINEX II Accuracy and speed of card-based algorithms Contact: sBMOC “Secure Biometric Match-on-Card” Demonstration of secure protocols for biometric authentication. Publication of NISTIR 7452 imminent. Contact:

10 MINEX II – Design objectives
Make it: independent, statistically robust, repeatable NIST Massive offline archival data Uniform, standards-based, interface Measure error rate tradeoffs Consider FNMR(t) vs. FMR(t)  Need matcher scores from card Demonstrate at industry “norm” of FMR of 10-4 Measure time Inspect the slow-but-accurate vs. fast-but-inaccurate spectrum Allow teams Allow card suppliers to team with fingerprint matcher suppliers Use the industry-preferred template ISO/IEC compact card – three bytes per minutia

11 MINEX II - Schedule Test plan development Phase I (private)
Initiated April 2007, finalized Aug 3, 2007 Phase I (private) Submission deadline, September 10, 2007 Acceptance + Validation testing began September 11, 2007 Results to vendors October 14 Phase II (public) Submissions due late October 2007 NIST publishes report December 17, 2007 MINEX II testing protocol  standardization US NB agreed to send New Project Proposal to SC37(WG5)

12 MINEX II - Acknowledgments
The MINEX test plan established a definitive card interface for testing a definitive PC-based interface for testing profiles of the base minutia standards was developed in consultation with industry. Thanks to: Authentec Bioscrypt Cogent Daon Fraunhöfer Gemalto IDTP L1 Oberthur Precise Biometrics Sagem SC17 WG11

13 Evaluation Principle N = O(106) n = O(103)
1: Measure accuracy by Execute N template comparisons on general purpose computer 2. Confirm by repeating n « N comparisons on the card N = O(106) n = O(103)

14 MINEX II – Execution Standards based test interface Test protocol
ISO/IEC – card commands ISO/IEC – biometric data structures ISO/IEC – compact card minutiae on card INCITS 378:2004 – parent template off card Test protocol Generate templates on PC Execute O(106) template comparisons on PC Repeat selected comparisons on target card Test on-card and off-card matcher scores for identity

15 MINEX II – Card APDUs Verification Template sent via VERIFY
Reference Template: sent via PUT DATA FNMR FMR Similarity Score via GET DATA

16 MINEX II - Implementation
Standard hardware SCR SCM335 reader (contact) Standard software M.U.S.C.L.E open-source PC/SC drivers Linux 2.6.X NIST Open Source MOC Harness

17 INCITS 378 as Parents to ISO-CC
Template extraction produces INCITS 378 Reader prompts for specific finger Scan produce output image User presents card Reader requests BIT from card Remove N-K minutiae based on quality + polar distance, per BIT Quantize minutia angle (8  6 bits) Quantize (x,y) 197  100 pix cm-1 Sort minutiae (XY, YX, Polar), per BIT ISO/IEC compact card “template” Send to card Match Decision

18 Remove minutiae to card capacity
Strategy: Lowest quality first and, for tied quality values, use largest radial distance.

19 MINEX II – Guidance on # minutiae
FNMR 5 Matchers Fix threshold to give FMR = for un-pruned templates FMR Card capacity (max # minutiae)

20 Does ISO-CC Degrade Accuracy?
ISO/IEC compact card format ~ 250 dpi (vs. ubiquitous 500) ~ 5.6 deg. angle resolution (vs. 2 deg in INCITS 378) FMR decreases slightly (but significantly) FNMR increases slightly (but significantly)

21 MINEX II – Software for Biometric Data
Open-source “C” code for INCITS 378 minutiae ISO/IEC minutiae INCITS 385 face (~ ISO/IEC ) INCITS 381 finger (~ ISO/IEC ) Validation, construction, IO Under full version control

22 MINEX II – Software support for MOC
MOC Template Support Transcoding INCITS 378 to ISO-CC templates: ISO/IEC 7816 Support MINEX II interface uses (PUT DATA, VERIFY etc) See And the open-source test driver here

23 MINEX II Results Protocol Implementations Vendor acceptance
Four suppliers Six implementations Open source support It works One interface problem Implementations ISO-CC templates can be matched with accuracy approaching INCITS 378 Some MOC implementations attain accuracy approaching that of better MINEX 04 matchers Median VERIFY execution time < 0.5s Speed – accuracy tradeoff is alive and well, but supplier influence is larger

24 Compact Iris Formats Compression JPEG ROI JPEG Lossless Interoperability Multiple segmentation algorithms Multiple matching algorithms NIST will release draft evaluation plan: November 15

25 Fusion Support INCITS 439 – Fusion Information Format is about to be published. It defines binary data structures for similarity score statistics (CDFs) to support simple yet powerful fusion implementations Multimodal Multi-algorithm

26 Score level fusion Large literature demonstrating that fusion techniques produce lower (FAR,FRR) If systems behave (fail, succeed) independently then fusion can have maximum effect. Score-level fusion is more potent that decision level But some evidence that even (face + finger) and (finger + iris) are partially correlated, due to human-sensor interaction etc. Score-level fusion is favored over feature level fusion for black box reasons: Implementation is easy. Post-match fusion avoids IP licensing or exposure. Also: Multimodal: Iris Corp A + Fingerprint Corp B Multi-algorithmic: Face Corp A + Face Corp B

27 INCITS 439 Fusion Information Format - An Example
n(x) m(x) Bayes optimal for uncorrelated biometrics Use of likelihood ratio allows relative “strength” of the (two) biometrics comes out in the wash without ad hoc weighting Aka BGI, Neyman Pearson. pdf N(x) M(x) cdf m(x) n(x) = L(x) Fused score: s(x) = log LFACE(xFACE) + log LIRIS(xIRIS) + …

28 NIST – Biometric Quality Workshop
November 7-8, 2007 Gaithersburg, MD, USA Sequel to March 06. Quality Uses (during capture) Relation to error rates Assessment capabilities Needs Interoperable values Calibration

29 Feedback is welcome:
Thank You Feedback is welcome: MINEX Root MINEX II Ongoing MINEX program

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