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L1 Telescopes

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L1 Purpose of this Lab Telescopes: See Use Understand

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L1 What is the Purpose of a Telescope? 1.Increase the amount of light we see. Sensitivity is proportional to Collecting Area. S = a constant times D/2) 2 If D increases, then S increases by D 2 If your telescope is 3 times bigger than mine, then your telescope can see 3 2 = 9 times fainter objects than mine. Can you read a book at night? What’s the faintest star you can see with your naked eye?

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L1 Sensitivity

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L1 What is the Purpose of a Telescope? 2. Increase the detail (resolution) we see. Resolution is inversely proportional to Telescope Diameter. a constant times /D Diffraction Limit If D increases then decreases by the same amount. If your telescope is 3 times bigger than mine then you can see 3 times smaller angles (3 times smaller objects or detail). Can you read a street sign a block away? Can you see the binary star in the Big Dipper with your naked eye?

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L1 Resolution

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L1 Types of Telescopes

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L1 Yerkes 40-inch refractor optical

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L1 Refractor

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L1 Yerkes 40-inch refractor optical

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L1 Reflector

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L1 Hooker 100-inch reflector optical

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L1 Keck twin 10- meter reflector optical/IR

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L1 Parkes 72-foot reflector radio

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L1 Very Large Array: 27 XX-meter reflectors

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L1 radio Arecibo 300-foot reflector

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L1 Atmospheric Seeing

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L1 Seeing degrades resolution Adaptive optics can recover resolution Engineering limits telescope size

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L1 Resolution and Seeing Neptune with the Palomar 200-inch reflector

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L1 Seeing and Magnification Larger than a few inches, a telescope’s resolution stops getting better due to seeing. Don’t be fooled by advertisements claiming huge magnification increases! –“Amazing 500X magnification!” But sensitivity ALWAYS increases with bigger telescopes.

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L1 Magnitude Scale The SMALLER the number the BRIGHTER the star! Every difference of 5 magnitudes is a 100X difference in BRIGHTNESS. Every difference of 1 magnitude = 2.5X brightness

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L1 Magnitude vs. Brightness Mag. Difference Factors of 2.5Brightness Diff. 12.5 1 = 2.5 2.5 22.5 2 = 2.5 X 2.5 6.3 32.5 3 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 16 42.5 4 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 40 52.5 5 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 100 62.5 6 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 250

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