Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Learner Language: Vocabulary & Phonology Amalia Caruso & Karen Murphy.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Learner Language: Vocabulary & Phonology Amalia Caruso & Karen Murphy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learner Language: Vocabulary & Phonology Amalia Caruso & Karen Murphy

2 Structure 1. Vocabulary 2. The Aspects of a Word 3. Frequency 4. Strategies for Meaning 5. Strategies for Acquisition 6. A brief History of L2 Acquisition Phonology 7. Learner Problems 8. Teaching Pronunciation

3 1. Vocabulary “Of all error types, learners consider vocabulary errors the most serious“ “[L]exical errors are the most common among second language learners“ “[N]ative speakers find lexical errors to be more disruptive than grammatical errors “ source: Gass, S.M. & Selinker, L. (2001). Second Language Acquisition. An Introductory Course. 2nd ed. London: LEA, 372.

4 1. Vocabulary is everywhere can disturb communication connected to phonology, orthography, morphology, grammar, etc.

5 1. Vocabulary 1.1 English in Numbers  It is estimated that the vocabulary of English ranges from 100,000 to 1,000,000 words (dependant on the way one counts the words)  An educated speaker of English is believed to know at least 20,000 words  Most everyday conversation requires about 2,000 words  80 – 90% of most non-technical texts is made up by 2,000 to 3,000 words (the most frequent ones)

6 1. Vocabulary 1.2 L1-Learners vs. L2-Learners L1 acquisition in children (first 1,000 or 2,000 words) L2 acquisition in older learners L1 spoken in environmentexposed to far smaller samples of language helpful contexts not always very helpful less difficult wordsmore difficult, meanings may not be easily guessed

7 1. Vocabulary 1.3 Vocabulary Tests (Meara) “The first step in knowing a word may simply be to recognize that it is a word”  items which look like English words but are not  estimate vocabulary size  effective even for advanced learners as number of chosen non-words is also taken into account

8 2. The Aspects of a Word “A word is more than its meaning!” form: written or spoken grammatical properties  category, (im-)possible structure, idiosyncratic grammatical information lexical properties  word combinations, appropriateness Meaning  general & specific

9 3. Frequency as long as students receive natural input from course books and teachers they will be getting the most common words automatically but it is often the edited texts and classroom conversations which do not have these natural properties (e.g. vocabulary is listed according to alphabetical order with brief translation into L1) (cf. Cook)

10 3. Frequency with which a word is seen, heard and understood up to 16 encounters to establish it in memory even more to use it in fluent speech & to understand it immediately (cf. Nation)

11 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.1 One-Syllable & Borrowed Words, Cognates List 1List 2List 3 FriendHamburgerGovernment MoreCokeResponsibility TownT-shirtDictionary BookWalkmanElementary HuntTaxiRemarkable SingPizzaDescription BoxHotelExpression SmileDollarInternational EyeInternetPreparation NightDiscoActivity (source: Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. p.98)

12 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.1 One-Syllable & Borrowed Words, Cognates List 1: One-Syllable Words among most common words but not likely to be known without former instruction or exposure to English form and pronunciation give no clue to meaning many exposures in order to establish them in memory

13 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.1 One-Syllable & Borrowed Words, Cognates List 2: Borrowed Words international vocabulary might be known to people who have never learned English, as well borrowed words

14 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.1 One-Syllable & Borrowed Words, Cognates List 3: Cognates Infrequent but known on sight or learned after single exposure resemblance to their translation equivalent in other languages

15 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.1 One-Syllable & Borrowed Words, Cognates Cognates misinterpretation possible recognition not always easy in general, more accessible in written than in spoken language

16 4. Strategies for Meaning 4.2 Other Strategies guessing from situation or context using a dictionary making deductions from the word-form

17 5. Strategies for Acquisition 5.1 Acquisition through Reading? some theorists suggest that one can learn vocabulary with little intentional effort (“Reading for pleasure”)  has a positive impact on learning, but doubtful: one has to know 95% of the words in a text in order to get the meaning of a new word (cf. Laufer)

18 5. Strategies for Acquisition 5.1 Acquisition through Reading? one has to encounter a new word many times (cf. Nation) certain types of words are very rare in narratives (cf. Gardner) certain types of books forbid the acquisition of words important for academic needs

19 5. Strategies for Acquisition 5.1 Acquisition through Reading?  more successful with focused attention through activities and productive tasks (cf. Hulstijn Laufer)  more effective with good learning strategies, as well (cf. Kojic-Sabo & Lightbown)

20 5. Strategies for Acquisition 5.2 Other Strategies repetition and rote learning organizing words linking to existing knowledge reviewing

21 6. A brief History of L2 Acquisition Phonology Not as much research on phonology as on other components of language Audiolingualism: techniques aimed at perception and production of the distinction of single sounds Critical period hypothesis: native-like pronunciation = unrealistic for L2 Communicative language teaching: little attention, if included: emphasis on rhythm, stress and intonation

22 7. Learner Problems 7.1 The basic Trouble: L1 Influence Languages differ in sounds & their structuring into syllables as well as intonation Degree of L1/L2 difference influences L2 phonology More difference = longer period to achieve fluency  Chinese vs. German or Dutch Affects other areas of language, too

23 7. Learner Problems 7.1 The basic Trouble: L1 Influence Can you think of typical mistakes foreigners from a specific country make?

24 7. Learner Problems 7.1 The basic Trouble: L1 Influence Some examples:  Korean L1: problem hearing & producing /l/ and /r/ sound Sounds not distinct in Korean  Spanish L1: “I e-speak e-Spanish” No consonant clusters starting with “s” at the beginning of words in Spanish  French L1: stress on last syllable Normal in French

25 7. Learner Problems 7.2 In Detail: Phonemes Phoneme: sound that distinguishes meaning in a particular language Languages differ in their choice of phonemes Typical pronunciation material: hearing and repeating sentences with high concentration on particular phoneme  Emphasis on practice rather than communication  Tries to build up new pronunciation habits

26 7. Learner Problems 7.2 In Detail: Phonemes Problem: Phoneme itself is not responsible Distinctive features of phonemes differ (e.g. voice, aspiration) Learner needs to learn both Harder to learn distinctive features (esp. of known phoneme) than a new phoneme Learner stages:  Presystematic stage  Transfer stage  Approximative stage

27 7. Learner Problems 7.3 In Detail: Syllable Structure Which of the following do you believe to be possible and which impossible English words?  Pfunging  Plin  Pzan  Prush  Trilly  Tnuc

28 7. Learner Problems 7.3 In Detail: Syllable Structure Language specific rules how syllables are made up English: compulsory vowel preceded or followed by one or more consonants Main L2 trouble: consonant combinations  Even if consonants of both languages are the same combinations may differ L2 learners try to make syllables fit their L1  Interlanguage solution

29 7. Learner Problems 7.3 In Detail: Syllable Structure Epenthesis: insertion of extra vowel to make English fit L1 (e.g. Korean, Arabic)  Korean: “kelass” for class  Japanese “sutoraki” for strike Simplification: deletion of consonants out of words if not allowed in L1  Cantonese: “Joa” for Joan

30 7. Learner Problems 7.4 In Detail: Voicing (VOT) Voice onset time: the moment voicing starts Systems differ Example: stops  English voiced: before or almost simultaneous to moment of release  English unvoiced: after release  Spanish: before release  Spanish unvoiced: almost simultaneous to release Spanish speaker may interpret voiced as unvoiced

31 7. Learner Problems 7.5 Universal Processes Occur in later stages of L2 acquisition (Major, 1986) Early stages: stronger L1 interference Simplification happens almost regardless of L1 Devoicing of final consonants Epenthesis depends on structure of L1 but seems available to all L2 learners

32 8. Teaching Pronunciation Recent studies: can make difference when focus lies on suprasegmentals rather than segmentals (Hahn, 2004) Typical: Ad-hoc correction of single words in isolation  Learning must include: pronunciation rules, syllable structure & precise VOT control Relationship reception/production of sounds is complex

33 8. Teaching Pronunciation Evelyn Altenberg (2005)  Learners good at writing pseudowords  NOT so good at production Faults need to be related to students current interlanguage Learner stage orientation:  Beginners: emphasis on single words  Intermediate: relate to L1  Advanced: L2 sound system separate

34 8. Teaching Pronunciation 8.1 Standards Controversial issue Intelligibility rather than native-like ability  Strong foreign accent can still be comprehensible (Munrow/Derwing, 1995) Teachers should be aware that some sounds will never improve (treat them differently to the ones that will) Remember: success rate depends on learner’s motivation

35 8. Teaching Pronunciation 8.2 Influential Factors Student’s L1 Amount and type of exposure to L2 Degree of L1 use Ethnic orientation and sense of identity

36 8. Teaching Pronunciation 8.3 Standard Teaching Techniques Phonetic Script  Disputed whether conscious awareness converts into ability to speak Imitation Discrimination of sounds  Minimal pair exercises: no context Consciousness raising  Training ears to hear things better (cf. Cook) Communication  Real life problems

37 8. Teaching Pronunciation 8.4 Intonation Intonation shows: grammatical points, discourse connections, speakers’ attitudes Helps intelligibility L2 intonation similar to L1: few problems New patterns: own strategies of students Mostly: practice and repetition Better: awareness for nature of intonation Dickerson (1987): L2 intonation instruction is indeed very helpful

38 Sources Gass, S.M. & Selinker, L. (2001). Second Language Acquisition. An Introductory Course. 2nd ed. London: LEA. Cook, V. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. 3rd ed. New York: OUP. Lightbown P.M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: OUP.

39 And finally: Thanks for your attention! We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year


Download ppt "Learner Language: Vocabulary & Phonology Amalia Caruso & Karen Murphy."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google