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A Theory-Based Model for Educating ELL Students at the Secondary Level Craig A. Hughes WABE Conference May 13, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "A Theory-Based Model for Educating ELL Students at the Secondary Level Craig A. Hughes WABE Conference May 13, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Theory-Based Model for Educating ELL Students at the Secondary Level Craig A. Hughes WABE Conference May 13, 2006

2 Theoretical Foundation Thomas & Collier’s “Prism Model” is the key foundation Thomas & Collier’s “Prism Model” is the key foundation All areas of the Prism need to be addressedAll areas of the Prism need to be addressed

3 Theoretical Foundation Language Needs Language Needs Native language needs to have status in the classroom (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Native language needs to have status in the classroom (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Advanced (enriched) coursework in native language (Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002 Lucas et al., 1990;)Advanced (enriched) coursework in native language (Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002 Lucas et al., 1990;) Content-based English language development (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Content-based English language development (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Assistance beyond basic language development (McLeod, 1996; Hughes, 2000)Assistance beyond basic language development (McLeod, 1996; Hughes, 2000)

4 Theoretical Foundation Academic needs Academic needs Grade-level expectations (Collier, 1995; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Grade-level expectations (Collier, 1995; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Enrichment activities, move beyond basics (Hughes, 2000; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; McLeod)Enrichment activities, move beyond basics (Hughes, 2000; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; McLeod)

5 Theoretical Foundation Social Needs Social Needs Adjustments for cultural influences (Collier, 1995; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Adjustments for cultural influences (Collier, 1995; Freeman, Freeman & Mercuri, 2002; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Inclusion in all aspects of the school, clubs, government, sports (Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990 McLeod, 1996)Inclusion in all aspects of the school, clubs, government, sports (Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990 McLeod, 1996) Role models in the classroom (Lucas et al., 1990 McLeod, 1996)Role models in the classroom (Lucas et al., 1990 McLeod, 1996) Family inclusion in the school setting (Collier, 1995; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Family inclusion in the school setting (Collier, 1995; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)

6 Theoretical Foundation The role of the school The role of the school All staff members are involved in the education of linguistically diverse students (Collier, 1995; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)All staff members are involved in the education of linguistically diverse students (Collier, 1995; Hughes, 2000; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Use of “New Wave” teaching methods (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996)Use of “New Wave” teaching methods (Collier, 1995; Lucas et al., 1990; McLeod, 1996) Implementation of bridge classes (McLeod, 1996)Implementation of bridge classes (McLeod, 1996) Extended instruction time (McLeod, 1996)Extended instruction time (McLeod, 1996)

7 Comparison of Elementary Schools and Secondary School Staffing is provided as “general educators.” Staffing is provided as “general educators.” Staff collaboration can be achieved with planning.Staff collaboration can be achieved with planning. Team teaching can be arranged with little conflictTeam teaching can be arranged with little conflict Staffing is provided along departmental lines. Staffing is provided along departmental lines. Staff collaboration, including team teaching, must cross over departments lines.

8 Comparison of Elementary Schools and Secondary School The limited bilingual materials available are at the elementary level The limited bilingual materials available are at the elementary level Bilingual materials are scarce. Bilingual materials are scarce. Teachers need to spend more time finding and/or creating quality materials

9 Comparison of Elementary Schools and Secondary School Recent arrivals have similar levels of linguistic and academic development Recent arrivals have similar levels of linguistic and academic development Instruction level can be more uniform.Instruction level can be more uniform. Recent arrival have tremendous differences in academic, native language, and English language development Recent arrival have tremendous differences in academic, native language, and English language development Class placement requires more flexibility.

10 Comparison of Elementary Schools and Secondary School Research and teacher preparation focused at the elementary level. Research and teacher preparation focused at the elementary level.

11 Comparison of Elementary Schools and Secondary School Younger children are still developing stereotypes and prejudices Younger children are still developing stereotypes and prejudices Social inclusion is more likely to occur naturally.Social inclusion is more likely to occur naturally. Prejudices and stereotypes have become well developed. Prejudices and stereotypes have become well developed. Limits social inclusion of “outsiders.”

12 Ideal Program New Arrivals BICS English CALP English Intensive ESL based on life-skills and school necessities Content-Based ESL English academic support (tutors, study hall, etc.) Required coursework in L1 (or true sheltered instruction if more than one L1) Required coursework in mainstream classes with L1 support Language arts provided in L1 that parallels English language arts Language arts in English with enrichment L1 courses with focus on specific needs.

13 Ideal Program New Arrivals BICS English CALP English Advanced coursework offered in L1 Advanced coursework offered in L1 or English with L1 support Advanced coursework offered in either language Electives in English for integration Electives offered in either language Support services in L1 and equal access to school activities

14 References Collier, V. P. (1995). Promoting academic success for ESL students. Elizabeth, NJ: NJTESOL-BE, Inc. Collier, V. P. (1995). Promoting academic success for ESL students. Elizabeth, NJ: NJTESOL-BE, Inc. Freeman, Y.S. & Freeman, D.E. with Mercuri, S. (2002). Closing the achievement gap: How to reach limited-formal schooling and long-term English learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Freeman, Y.S. & Freeman, D.E. with Mercuri, S. (2002). Closing the achievement gap: How to reach limited-formal schooling and long-term English learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Lucas, T., Henze, R. & Donato, R. (1990). Promoting the success of Latino language- minority students: An exploratory study of six high schools. Harvard Educational Review, 60(3), Lucas, T., Henze, R. & Donato, R. (1990). Promoting the success of Latino language- minority students: An exploratory study of six high schools. Harvard Educational Review, 60(3), McLeod, B. (1996). School reform and student diversity: Exemplary schooling for language minority students. NCBE Resource Collection Series (4). Washington, DC: NCELA McLeod, B. (1996). School reform and student diversity: Exemplary schooling for language minority students. NCBE Resource Collection Series (4). Washington, DC: NCELA


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