A forest is a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that cover a considerable area that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself. SUMBERDAYA HUTAN Diunduh dari: http://www.extension.org/pages/33599/forest-ecosystems …………. 27/12/2012 Forest ecosystems are the combination of species, geology, topography, and climate tied together by physical and biotic processes specific to any one site, and most importantly occupied by trees as the dominant vegetation. A forest ecosystem may be as small as a tree branch microsite where mosses, insects, and microscopic organisms interact or as large as the boreal forest that encircles the Earth at northern latitudes. Diagram of various components that comprise forest ecosystems in the United States. Illustration courtesy of Peter Kolb, University of Montana.
Ecology is the scientific study of the relationship of living things to one another and to their environment. EKOLOGI HUTAN? SUMBERDAYA HUTAN Diunduh dari: http://envirorhi.wordpress.com/2012/05/02/ecosystem-good-and-services/ ………. 27/12/2012 Forests provide a number of services for humanity, including carbon sequestering as illustrated in this diagram. Sadly, the worlds rainforests have already been reduced by 55% resulting in more carbon in the atmosphere (not to mention loss of biodiversity ect). (Source: (Hay, 2008) Image: http://www.tececo.com/sustainability.role_soil_sequestration.php?print) http://www.tececo.com/sustainability.role_soil_sequestration.php?print
Diunduh dari Sumber: http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/resources/theory.php….. 17/10/2012 NERACA AIR DAN NERACA ENERGI …. POHON…. Precipitation (P) is any and all forms of water that fall from clouds and reach the ground. Runoff (R) is the water from precipitation that is not absorbed into the soil, but flows and reaches a stream or another body of water. Evapotranspiration (E) is water evaporating from wet surfaces and the soil plus the water release of plants.
HUTAN Ecology is the study of the complex interactions between the organic and inorganic elements of a forest ecosystem. Ekosistem hutan: organisme, tanah, udara dan air yang berhubungan dengan hutan. SUMBERDAYA HUTAN Ekosistem hutan jati pada musim kemarau tegakan jatinya menggugurkan daun-daun untuk meminimumkan evapotranspirasi
A Forest Ecosystem Is “Interdependent” 1.Meaning that every organism depends on every other living and nonliving element of the system. 2.Living components of the forest = producers (able to make food), consumers (eats other producers and consumers), and decomposers (break down organic material). 3.Non-living components = soil, water and climate. SUMBERDAYA HUTAN Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
SUMBERDAYA HUTAN HUTAN KOTA SEBAGAI HABITAT BURUNG Salah satu satwa liar yang dapat dikembangkan di wilayah perkotaan adalah burung. Beberapa manfaat dari satwa ini adalah (1)membantu mengendalikan serangga hama, (2) membantu penyerbukan bunga, (3) mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi, (4) memiliki suara yang khas, menimbulkan suasana yang menyenangkan, (5) atraksi rekreasi, (6) sumber plasma nutfah, (7) obyek pendidikan dan penelitian. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
Perennial woody plants Grow upright with single stems and have their roots anchored in soil Must have the ability to reach at least 20ft or more in height The single trunk should be unbranched for at least several feet above the ground Specimen must have a sizeable crown. SUMBERDAYA HUTAN
EMPAT BAGIAN- UTAMA POHON CROWN- where the tree increases each year in height and spread of branches by adding on a new growth of twigs. LEAVES- make up the crown and produce food for the tree (photosynthesis). TRUNK- supports the crown and produces the majority of the tree’s useful wood. ROOTS- anchors the tree, absorbs and stores water and nutrients. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
BAGAIMANA POHON TUMBUH ? Heartwood- the supporting column of inactive (dead) gap-wood which gives the trunk strength and stiffness. Sapwood (xylem)- new layers of wood that transports water and nutrients from roots to the leaves. Cambium- microscopic layer of cells where growth takes place. Inner bark (phloem)- carries food made in leaves down to the branches, trunk and roots. Outer bark- hold in moisture and protects the tree from insects and disease, excessive heat and cold, and mechanical injury. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
All trees compete for the same basic requirement of life – light, water, essential elements, oxygen, and other necessities. The species that are better able to gather those requirements will out-compete others. Diunduh dari: http://biocharfarms.org/farming/ …………. 27/12/2012
Broadleaved or hardwood trees are better able to compete and grow on deeper, heavier, more productive soils. The needle-leaved trees or conifers do better on poorer, lighter textured soils. Diunduh dari: http://0.tqn.com/d/forestry/1/0/_/m/root_zone.jpg …………. 27/12/2012 Vertical mulching is an excellent technique used to partially alleviate soil compaction within the critical root zones of trees. Soil compaction is harmful as it reduces the amount of pore space in the soil normally filled by oxygen (micro-pores) and water (macro-pores). Vertical mulching will also lessen damage due to excessive water, preserve necessary aeration during wet periods, allow sub-soil water penetration during dry periods, and promote the formation of fine feeder roots.
Ekosistem Hutan selalu berubah, tidak pernah berhenti proses perubahannya! 1.Natural changes: fire, storms, drought, flood, death and disease 2.Man-made changes: harvesting, farming, trails, recreation and development Penahan Angin Hutan kota mempunyai kemampuan mengurangi kecepatan aliran angin kencang hingga 75-80%. Persyaratan jenis pohon untuk keperluan ini adalah (1) memiliki dahan yang kuat, biasanya berat jenis kayunya > 0.4, (2) daunnya tidak mudah rontok oleh terpaan angin, (3) akarnya menghunjam kuat masuk ke dalam tanah, (4) mempunyai kerapatan yang cukup (50- 60%). Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
Suksesi Komunitas These changes are known as disturbances and spark the process called succession. Succession is the gradual change in plants and animal communities over time. – Primary succession occurs in an area that has no true soil. Pioneer species are the first plants to grow at these barren sites. – Secondary succession occurs on landscapes where the natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil remains intact. Diunduh dari: http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-90130/Secondary-succession-takes-place- following-a-major-disturbance-such-as …………. 27/12/2012 SUKSESI SEKUNDER
Apa itu Toleransi ? Tree species that first colonize an area are usually shade- intolerant species and must have full sunlight to do well. (pines, black locust, black cherry, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, blackgum, sassafrass, and sumac) Once they have developed some sun coverage the shade- tolerant species will begin to grow and eventually take over the canopy. ( oaks, hickories, and American beech) Diunduh dari: http://zoology.muohio.edu/oris/zoo121/notes/envs2003_07.htm …………. 27/12/2012 CRITICAL FACTORS AND TOLERANCE LIMITS Every living organism has limits to the environmental conditions it can endure. Environmental factors must be within appropriate levels for life to persist. Temperature Moisture levels Nutrient supply Soil and water chemistry Living space Leibig's Law of Minimum: In 1840, Justus von Liebig proposed that the single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the critical determinant in the distribution of that species. Sheldford's Law of Tolerance: Victor Shelford later expanded Liebig's principal by stating that each environmental factor has both minimum and maximum levels called tolerance limits beyond which a particular species cannot survive.
1. Succession ensures the continuation of the forest by allowing other species the chance to grow and helps to increase the forest’s biodiversity. 2. Biodiversity is the species richness or variability among species in a given ecosystem. When an area is rich in native species is encourages other native animals and insects to inhabit that area, this in turn makes the ecosystem stronger. 3. When forests are strong they are better able to withstand and recover from stress the outside environment imposes. Suksesi selalu terjadi Diunduh dari: http://zoology.muohio.edu/oris/zoo121/notes/envs2003_07.htm …………. 27/12/2012 A specific critical factor that, more than any other, may determine the abundance and distribution of a species in a given area. Cold intolerance in the Giant saguaro cactus Salt and temperature tolerance in egg and juvenile desert pupfish Sometimes the requirements and tolerances of species are useful indicators of specific environmental characteristics The presence or absence of these environmental indicators can tell us something about the community and ecosystem as a whole.
Pohon menempati semua strata dalam hutan ! : formed by the branches and leaves from the tallest trees : the middle layer where shorter trees and shrubs grow. : is the third layer where trees begin as seedlings. Tree roots also make up this layer that hold onto to soil and organic matter so that grasses, ferns, fungi, decaying plants and logs, microorganisms and animals may flourish. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
Trees can be classified according to the position they occupy in the forest canopy or understory. Such as system measures how well a tree has grown relative to its closet competitors. (Trees that get the most sunlight generally grow fastest). Ada lima kelas Tajuk Pohon sbb. Klasifikasi Pohon How trees produce and use energy for growth and maintenance. Illustrations courtesy of Peter Kolb, University of Montana. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
Kelas-kelas tajuk pohon : – Dominant – have tops that rise above the general canopy level. They receive full sunlight from above and all sides. – Co-dominant – These trees make up the canopy level. Their crowns get full sunlight from above, but dominant and other co- dominate trees restrict some side sunlight. – Intermediate – These trees also occupy the average canopy level, but receive sunlight only from above. – Suppressed – These are trees that receive no direct overhead or side sunlight. They are usually are slow growing and are weak. – Dead trees (snags) – These can be found in the canopy, understory or forest floor. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012
If uninterrupted, succession will lead to the “climax" community. Climax Community- a point in succession where the overstory trees are replaced by younger trees of the same species and have reached equilibrium. Diunduh dari: http://blog.aboveandbeyond-treeservice.com/ …………. 27/12/2012 URBAN Tree Risk Checklist Consider these questions: 1.Are there large, dead branches in the tree? 2.Are there detached branches hanging in the tree? 3.Does the tree have cavities or rotten wood along the trunk or in major branches? 4.Are mushrooms present at the base of the tree? 5.Are there cracks or splits in the trunk or where branches are attached? 6.Have any branches fallen from the tree? 7.have adjacent trees fallen over or died? 8.Has the trunk developed a strong lean? 9.Do many of the major branches arise from one point on the trunk? 10.Have the roots been broken off, injured, or damaged by lowering the soil level, installing pavement, repairing sidewalks, or digging trenches? 11.Has the site recently been changed by construction, raising the soil level, or installing lawns? 12.Have the leaves prematurely developed an unusual color or size? 13.Have trees in adjacent wooded areas been removed? 14.Has the tree been topped or otherwise heavily pruned?
Hutan Climax Typically, climax forests are dominated by shade-tolerant species. In the Northern Hardwood Forest, the climax community is made up of sugar maple, American beech, and hemlock. In this example American Linden or Basswood precedes the climax stage and is said to be the “sub-climax” tree. Diunduh dari: http://blog.aboveandbeyond-treeservice.com/ …………. 27/12/2012 DEFECTS IN URBAN TREES The following are defects or signs of possible defects in urban trees: 1.Regrowth from topping, line clearance, or other pruning 2.Electrical line adjacent to tree 3.Broken or partially attached branches 4.Open cavity in trunk or branch 5.Dead or dying branches 6.Branches arising from a single point on the trunk 7.Decay and rot present in old wounds 8.Recent change in grade or soil level, or other construction.