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Word Up!* ESL + Linguistics = Learning Community with an “Interlanguage” Focus * exclamation – I understand you; I agree with you. A colloquial phrase.

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Presentation on theme: "Word Up!* ESL + Linguistics = Learning Community with an “Interlanguage” Focus * exclamation – I understand you; I agree with you. A colloquial phrase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Word Up!* ESL + Linguistics = Learning Community with an “Interlanguage” Focus * exclamation – I understand you; I agree with you. A colloquial phrase originating from within the African-American community… often shortened to simply “Word!”

2 Kapi’olani Community College Honolulu, Hawai’i Department of Languages, Linguistics & Literature Susan Banner Inouye, Linguistics Shawn Ford, ESL Miho Yamanouchi, Student

3 Content of Word Up Learning Community  study Linguistics concepts  develop academic English writing skills  study Second Language Acquisition concepts  work on shared assignments and projects throughout the semester  examine individual language development patterns and needs for future language development

4 Learning Community Logistics Two teachers Two disciplines Two consecutive class periods twice a week Snack schedule Two course grades One coordinated syllabus Coordinated in-class activities, readings, lectures Several integrated assignments Some separate assignments

5 Today’s Presentation Shrinky Dink ® version of a semester in Word Up Participants will assume role of students “Students” will learn about Interlanguage “Students” will learn some Linguistics “Students” will observe their own language “Students” will analyze their own language “Students” will apply theory to themselves “Students” will present results & reflect

6 Contents of Packets Outline of Today’s Presentation Word Up Syllabus (full version available upon request) Your Learner Profile Your Interlanguage Phonology Kit: –two index cards –L1 synopsis –L1 wordlist –L2 synopsis –Generalization Form –Answer Key Evaluation Form

7 Interlanguage Phonology Project: In the real Word Up, students write a paper which includes primary data collection & library research Your Interlanguage Phonology Kit: –two index cards (simulates data elicitation) –L1 synopsis (simulates research) –L1 wordlist (simulates collected data) –L2 synopsis (simulates research) –Generalization Form (simulates polished paper) –Answer Key (real students don’t have one!)

8 Instructions Take 5 minutes right now to introduce yourselves to your group-members, assuming the identity of your student profile Red: Ahn Blue: Natsuko Yellow: Richard White: DK

9 In the Word Up Learning Community Students learn about Interlanguage through readings, lectures, discussions, writing activities, vocab quizzes Students learn about Linguistics through textbook readings, homework and in-class activities, writing activities, quizzes

10 An interlanguage is an individual learner language that is developed by a person who is in the process of learning a second language (L2) (lecture simulates condensed course content) Characterization: Approximated version of L2 Some features of L1 Linguistic innovations Development: Language transfer Overgeneralization Simplification Fossilization

11 The ILP and ESL Learning: Justification Awareness-raising –Schmidt, R. (1990) The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning. –Schmidt, R. (1993) Awareness and second language acquisition. Goal-setting –Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D., & Goodwin, J. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: Reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Learner autonomy –Little, D., Ridley, J., & Ushioda, E., 2002. Towards Greater Autonomy in the Foreign Language Classroom.

12 Factors that affect interlanguage development (lecture simulates condensed course content) Transfer of L1 phonology into the L2 Learner’s overall level of language proficiency Learner’s stage and duration of fossilization Markedness theory Glossary: phonology = pronunciation; fossilization= frozen development; markedness = how common/uncommon a feature is in the world’s languages

13 Transfer of L1 Phonology (lecture simulates condensed course content) Transfer of single sounds Transfer of syllable structure Transfer of stress, intonation, etc.

14 Languages differ in how they sound for a couple of reasons (lecture simulates condensed course content) L1 uses different consonants & vowels than L2, though there may be some sounds in common L1 organizes its sounds into syllables and words differently from L2

15 Example: Hawaiian vs. English (lecture simulates condensed course content) Hawaiian has only 13 sounds –5 vowels: i, e, a, o, u –8 consonants: p, k, m, n, l, w, h, ʔ American English has around 40 sounds –15 vowels –25 consonants

16 Sound Substitution (lecture simulates condensed course content) book [b ʊ k]  [puke] –[b] substituted with [p] sister [s ɪ stər]  [tita] –[s] substituted with [t]

17 Hawaiian Syllable Structure (lecture simulates condensed course content) Hawaiian allows only –CV: ka ‘the’, puka ‘hole’, ʔ a ʔ i ‘neck’ –V: i ‘object marker’ –CVV: kai ‘sea’, pau ‘finished’ English allows –CV, CVV, CCV, CCVCC, CCCVCCC, etc go, boy, stay, stand, strengths [str ɛ ŋkθ]

18 Syllable Structure Transfer (lecture simulates condensed course content) Consonant Clusters separated by an inserted vowel: plaid [plæd]  [palaka] Or Vowel Inserted after Word-Final Consonant book [b ʊ k]  [puke] Or Final Consonant deleted sister [s ɪ stər]  [tita ] Or Cluster Simplified sister [s ɪ stər]  [tita]

19 Generalizations for Hawaiian (L1) to English (L2) (lecture simulates condensed course content) Sounds: –Because there is no b, d, s in Hawaiian, p, k are substituted Syllables: –Because only (C)V(V) allowed, clusters are resolved in various ways

20 Your goal as a student in the Word Up course is to analyze your own interlanguage phonology by…

21 Applying linguistics & interlanguage material to your own data… (lecture simulates students’ Interlanguage Phonology Project [ILP]) Collecting data on yourself (partner will transcribe you) Analyzing your pronunciation data Reporting on your pronunciation Reflecting on how this might impact your learning strategies for English

22 Instructions (lecture simulates data elicitation) (5 minutes) Turn to your partner and take turns transcribing each other’s wordlists Exchange Index Card 1 with a partner –Index Card 1 (transcriber’s prompt list) Spell the words the way your partner says them –Index Card 2 (speaker’s pronunciation guide) Pronounce the words the way you see them spelled Give Index Card 1 back to its owner

23 Instructions (simulates students’ research & writing) (15 minutes) Regroup and join other “students” with the same identity (reds, blues, yellows, whites) Together examine your L1 phonology synopsis and L1 pronunciation data Try to find some generalizations about sound substitutions and syllable structure resolutions Write your results on Generalization Form Choose a spokesperson to share your findings

24 Student Presentations Japanese –Sounds –Syllables Korean –Sounds –Syllables Vietnamese –Sounds –Syllables Cantonese –Sounds –Syllables

25 Reflection

26 How Interlanguage Phonology Project affects my learning of English Understand my own tendenciesUnderstand my own tendencies -awareness raising Understand phonological progress in EnglishUnderstand phonological progress in English -goal setting Improve my pronunciationImprove my pronunciation -acquisition

27 My Thoughts about Learning Community Two instructors in the same classroomTwo instructors in the same classroom More focus on topicMore focus on topic Deeper learning about topicDeeper learning about topic Application of learning to writingApplication of learning to writing

28 Reflections on ESL and Linguistics Learning Community “Even though I had difficulty with expressing my opinion in writing before, it could be better as writing critique essay and analysis essay.” “Everything that I learned applied to my English background and from now on.” “I learned about myself a lot because English is part of myself.”

29 Word Up! ESL and Linguistics Learning Community

30 References Chan, Alice & David C.S. Li.2000. English and Cantonese Phonology in Contrast : Explaining Cantonese ESL Learners’ English Pronunciation Problems. Language, Culture and Curriculum. Vol. 13, No. 1, 2000. Comrie, Bernard. 1990. The World’s Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ford, Shawn. 2001. Tutoring Project Final Paper. Unpublished ms. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Manoa. Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & N. Hyams. 2003. An Introduction to Language. 7 th ed. Boston: Thomson Heinle. Japanese Phonology. 13, Feb 2006. Accessed 3/5/2006.

31 References, cont’d Kim, Hyouk-Keun. 1999. Interlanguage Phonology of Korean Learners of English. bin/kaeps/il_phon.htm. Accessed: 03/01/2006 Korean Language. Accessed: 9/15/2005. bin/kaeps/il_phon.htm Ladefoged, Peter and Maddieson, Ian. UCLA Phonetics Lab Data: Korean. lsandConsonants/appendix/languages/korean/ ml. Accessed 3/8/2006 lsandConsonants/appendix/languages/korean/ ml Nilsen, D. & Nilsen A. 1973. Pronunciation Contrasts in English. New York: Regents Publishing Co., Inc.

32 References, cont’d O’Grady, W., Archibald, J. Aronoff, M. & J. Rees-Miller. 2001. Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. 4 th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Taiffalo. 2001. Sound System in Vietnamese. vietname/chuliau/lunsoat/sound/2.htm. Accessed: 9/15/05. vietname/chuliau/lunsoat/sound/2.htm Vietnamese Phonology. Vietnamese_phonology#Syllable_and_phonotactics. Accessed: 03/01/2006. Vietnamese_phonology#Syllable_and_phonotactics Weinberger, Steven H. Fall, 2005. Native Phonetic Inventory: Cantonese. George Mason University.. Accessed March 14, 2006.

33 Mahalo! For more information, please contact Susan Inouye [] or Shawn Ford []. For the student perspective contact Miho Yamanouchi []

34 Mahalo! Brought to you by –Kapi’olani Community College: Dept. of Languages, Linguistics & Literature –KapCC Faculty Development Fund –KapCC Learning Communities Institute –KapCC Planning & Grants Mgt Office

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