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Introduction to Algorithms 6.046J Lecture 1 Prof. Shafi Goldwasser Prof. Erik Demaine

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L1.2 Welcome to Introduction to Algorithms, Spring 2004 Handouts 1.Course InformationCourse Information 2.Course CalendarCalendar 3.Problem Set 1 4.Akra-Bazzi Handout

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L1.3 Course information 1.StaffStaff 2.Prerequisites 3.Lectures & RecitationsRecitations 4.HandoutsHandouts 5.Textbook (CLRS)Textbook (CLRS) 6.Website 8.Extra Help 9.Registration 10.Problem sets 11.Describing algorithms 12.Grading policy 13.Collaboration policyCollaboration policy

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L1.4 What is course about? The theoretical study of design and analysis of computer algorithms Basic goals for an algorithm: always correct always terminates This class: performance Performance often draws the line between what is possible and what is impossible.

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L1.5 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Analysis: predict the cost of an algorithm in terms of resources and performance Design: design algorithms which minimize the cost

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L1.6 Our Machine Model Generic Random Access Machine (RAM) Executes operations sequentially Set of primitive operations: –Arithmetic. Logical, Comparisons, Function calls Simplifying assumption: all ops cost 1 unit –Eliminates dependence on the speed of our computer, otherwise impossible to verify and to compare

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L1.7 The problem of sorting Input: sequence a 1, a 2, …, a n of numbers. Example: Input: 8 2 4 9 3 6 Output: 2 3 4 6 8 9 Output: permutation a' 1, a' 2, …, a' n such that a' 1 a' 2 … a' n.

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L1.8 Insertion sort I NSERTION -S ORT (A, n) ⊳ A[1.. n] for j ← 2 to n dokey ← A[ j] i ← j – 1 while i > 0 and A[i] > key doA[i+1] ← A[i] i ← i – 1 A[i+1] = key “pseudocode” ij key sorted A:A: 1n

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L1.9 Example of insertion sort 824936

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L1.10 Example of insertion sort 824936

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L1.11 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936

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L1.12 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936

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L1.13 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936

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L1.14 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936

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L1.15 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936 248936

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L1.16 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936 248936

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L1.17 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936 248936 234896

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L1.18 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936 248936 234896

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L1.19 Example of insertion sort 824936 284936 248936 248936 234896 234689done

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L1.20 Running time The running time depends on the input: an already sorted sequence is easier to sort. Major Simplifying Convention: Parameterize the running time by the size of the input, since short sequences are easier to sort than long ones. T A (n) = time of A on length n inputs Generally, we seek upper bounds on the running time, to have a guarantee of performance.

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L1.21 Kinds of analyses Worst-case: (usually) T(n) = maximum time of algorithm on any input of size n. Average-case: (sometimes) T(n) = expected time of algorithm over all inputs of size n. Need assumption of statistical distribution of inputs. Best-case: (NEVER) Cheat with a slow algorithm that works fast on some input.

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L1.22 Machine-independent time What is insertion sort’s worst-case time? B IG I DEAS : Ignore machine dependent constants, otherwise impossible to verify and to compare algorithms Look at growth of T(n) as n → ∞. “Asymptotic Analysis”

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L1.23 -notation Drop low-order terms; ignore leading constants. Example: 3n 3 + 90n 2 – 5n + 6046 = (n 3 ) DEF: (g(n)) = { f (n) :there exist positive constants c 1, c 2, and n 0 such that 0 c 1 g(n) f (n) c 2 g(n) for all n n 0 } Basic manipulations:

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L1.24 Asymptotic performance n T(n)T(n) n0n0. Asymptotic analysis is a useful tool to help to structure our thinking toward better algorithm We shouldn’t ignore asymptotically slower algorithms, however. Real-world design situations often call for a careful balancing When n gets large enough, a (n 2 ) algorithm always beats a (n 3 ) algorithm.

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L1.25 Insertion sort analysis Worst case: Input reverse sorted. Average case: All permutations equally likely. Is insertion sort a fast sorting algorithm? Moderately so, for small n. Not at all, for large n. [arithmetic series]

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L1.26 Example 2: Integer Multiplication Let X = A B and Y = C D where A,B,C and D are n/2 bit integers Simple Method: XY = (2 n/2 A+B)(2 n/2 C+D) Running Time Recurrence T(n) < 4T(n/2) + 100n Solution T(n) = (n 2 )

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L1.27 Better Integer Multiplication Let X = A B and Y = C D where A,B,C and D are n/2 bit integers Karatsuba: XY = (2 n/2 +2 n )AC+2 n/ 2(A-B)(C-D) + (2 n/2 +1) BD Running Time Recurrence T(n) < 3T(n/2) + 100n Solution: (n) = O(n log 3 )

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L1.28 Example 3:Merge sort M ERGE -S ORT A[1.. n] 1.If n = 1, done. 2.Recursively sort A[ 1.. n/2 ] and A[ n/2 +1.. n ]. 3.“Merge” the 2 sorted lists. Key subroutine: M ERGE

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L1.29 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1

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L1.30 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1

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L1.31 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9

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L1.32 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2

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L1.33 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9

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L1.34 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7

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L1.35 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9

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L1.36 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9

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L1.37 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9 20 13 12 11

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L1.38 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9 20 13 12 11

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L1.39 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9 20 13 12 11 20 13 12

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L1.40 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9 20 13 12 11 20 13 12

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L1.41 Merging two sorted arrays 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 1 1 20 13 7 2 12 11 9 2 20 13 7 12 11 9 7 20 13 12 11 9 9 20 13 12 11 20 13 12 Time = (n) to merge a total of n elements (linear time).

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L1.42 Analyzing merge sort M ERGE -S ORT A[1.. n] 1.If n = 1, done. 2.Recursively sort A[ 1.. n/2 ] and A[ n/2 +1.. n ]. 3.“Merge” the 2 sorted lists T(n) (1) 2T(n/2) (n) Sloppiness: Should be T( n/2 ) + T( n/2 ), but it turns out not to matter asymptotically.

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L1.43 Recurrence for merge sort T(n) = (1) if n = 1; 2T(n/2) + (n) if n > 1. We shall usually omit stating the base case when T(n) = (1) for sufficiently small n, but only when it has no effect on the asymptotic solution to the recurrence. Lecture 2 provides several ways to find a good upper bound on T(n).

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L1.44 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant.

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L1.45 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. T(n)T(n)

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L1.46 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. T(n/2) cn

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L1.47 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn T(n/4) cn/2

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L1.48 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) …

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L1.49 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n

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L1.50 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n cn

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L1.51 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n cn

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L1.52 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n cn …

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L1.53 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n cn #leaves = n (n)(n) …

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L1.54 Recursion tree Solve T(n) = 2T(n/2) + cn, where c > 0 is constant. cn cn/4 cn/2 (1) … h = lg n cn #leaves = n (n)(n) Total (n lg n) …

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L1.55 Conclusions (n lg n) grows more slowly than (n 2 ). Therefore, merge sort asymptotically beats insertion sort in the worst case. In practice, merge sort beats insertion sort for n > 30 or so.

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