Presentation on theme: "Long Term English Learners and Oral Language: Breaking the Logjam David Irwin WABE 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Long Term English Learners and Oral Language: Breaking the Logjam David Irwin WABE 2011
Ensure that instructional leaders are knowledgeable on the research on Long Term English Learners (LTELs) and oral language development in an effort to help ELLs become proficient users of English. BY Engaging in professional dialogue and practice with colleagues about improving instruction with oral language activities.
A student who has been in a structured sheltered or bilingual program for six years or longer (California Dept of Ed) Washington has no official definition of LTEL However we do have students who plateau, or receive the same score on the WLPT for years LTELs begin to appear in middle school, continuing to high school Patterns of non-academic English use begin pre- Kindergarten (Kinsella 2010)
Time in ProgramTotal ServedExited ELL Students* % of Exited Students Less than 1 Year14, % 1 to < 2 Years22,9763, % 2 to < 3 Years17,4182, % 3 to < 4 Years12,3811, % 4 to < 5 Years % 5 to < 6 Years6, % 6+ Years9,9381, % Total91,46911, % Source: Educating English Language Learners in Washington State, 2009–10 : Report to Legislature
654 of year student exited in of year students exited in 2010 In Washington has 14,285 at 6+ years, about 15%
Academic Language takes 5-7 years for a student with some schooling in L1 Up to 12 years for a students with little or no schooling in L1 A student who is 6 years into the program is not necessarily at deficit – unless they are not making progress (See Margo Gottlieb for tips on assessment at this conference….)
“Proficiency in oral language provides children with a vital tool for thought. Without fluent and structured oral language, children will find it very difficult to think.” --Jerome Bruner
Children’s speaking and listening skills lead the way for their reading and writing skills, and together these language skills are the primary tools of the mind for all future learning. Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, 2005, p. v.
Oral Language Link Between Oral Language and Comprehension Phonological Awareness Letter Knowledge DecodingComprehension Oral Language has a direct correlation to reading comprehension C. Eisenhart
What Does Research Suggest Regarding Oral Language Development?
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth (Hirsch, 1996) Reading Age Level Chronological Age Low Oral Language in Kindergarten High Oral Language in Kindergarten 5.2 years difference
50– 45 – 40 – 35 – 30 – 25 – 20 – 15 – 10 – 5 – Age of child (years) Number of words heard (millions) Children from: Professional Families Working Class Families Welfare Families
Oral Language Proficiency: knowledge and use of specific aspects of oral language, including phonology, vocabulary, morphology, grammar, and discourse domains. It encompasses skills in both comprehension and expression. The National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (2006)
English language learners need plenty of oral practice with social and academic language English Language Development (ELD) instruction should emphasize listening and speaking although it can incorporate reading and writing. Allowing the use of the student’s first language (L1) accelerates his/her growth Use of the L1 can be structured in a dual language program, and can be used strategically in a Sheltered English program Saunders and Goldenberg (2010), National Literacy Panel (2006) Collier & Thomas (1997) and (2001)
The National Reading Panel reviewed 1,700 scientifically sound studies that guide the implementation of many literacy programs today. The NRP did not intentionally review research related to English language learners. The National Literacy Panel for Language Minority Children and Youth reviewed 700 scientifically sound studies related to literacy for English language learners. There are relatively few studies to build scientific consensus when it comes to implementation literacy programs for English learners. The NRP findings do provide guidance for implementing ELL programs; however, these findings are not sufficient to meet all the needs of English language learners. The studies reviewed by the National Literacy Panel suggests that English language learners need more background built, and more English oral language development (vocabulary) than English fluent readers do
Collier and Thomas’ Prism Model Successful programs include all four components of the theoretical framework, using both L 1 (primary language) and L 2 (second language) Social and cultural processes are at the heart of successful programs.
Explicit oral language development is critical for ELL students in the mastery of academic language. ELLs who do not have a strong foundation in academic oral language in the primary years are at risk of becoming long-term English learners (LTELs). Accurate Oral Fluency: Ease of producing accurate target language forms (vocabulary, syntax, grammar) and ability to comprehend while listening to more sophisticated language Kinsella & Dutro, Cal. Report, 2010
If there is no dedicated ELD time block, ELD must be integrated into the day, with language objectives included with content objectives. Intuitively, scaffolded, leveled activities are effective in the content class, although there is not yet research on this. Washington’s ELD Listening & Speaking Standards offer guidelines for oral language instruction at all language and grade levels. Goldenberg and Saunders, Cal. Report, 2010
Academic language is: the language used in the classroom and workplace the language of text the language assessments the language of academic success the language of power Dr. Robin Scarcella, University of California at Irvine
The language of reading Infer Compare Connect Conclude, etc The language of writing Revise Edit Draft, etc The language of mathematics Targeted content vocabulary Standard grammatical structures
Success with academic content is dependent on students’ mastery of academic language vs conversational language Students will learn much conversational language on their own Academic language must be continuously developed and explicitly taught across all subject areas Academic language is present in all language domains: reading, writing, listening, speaking Cummins 1981
ELL students typically require at least 5 years to attain grade level expectations in language and literacy skills In order to catch up to grade norms within 6 years, ELLs must make 15 months gain in every school year Learning academic uses of language is a life-long endeavor for both native English speakers and ELLs Thomas & Collier (1997); Cummins (2010); Dutro (2002)
Use academic vocabulary and academic function words connected to content Develop higher level thinking Are used at every proficiency level, including for native English speakers Enable focus on specific language structures Provide feedback for improving performance Provide an opportunity to practice comprehensible output Kinsella (2010)
SWBAT use a variety of passes in a basketball game. SWBAT label and explain why they would choose a certain pass. In pairs, SWBAT show understanding of forming equivalent fractions using halves, fourths, eighths, and sixteenths. SW use the terms compared to, greater than, less than, equivalent, we agree, we decided.
Write the language/activity part of the objective for two of the following content components: SW understand that static energy can transform into dynamic energy. SW determine the beginning, middle and end of the story Goldilocks and the Three Bears.
Washington has English Language Development Standards in three areas: Listening/Speaking Reading Writing The Standards are matched to the GLEs at grade bands K-2, 3-5, 6-8, & 9-12 They are also specified for five language acquisition levels, Beginning to Transitional
In sheltered instruction, language is differentiated and matched to ELD Proficiencies There are five levels of language acquisition
Use linguistic patterning (frames) to have students practice academic language Frames match comprehension skills Students practice language while learning content
These structures encourage and support all students to speak using academic oral language. Project GLAD Guided Oral Practice Narrative Input Chants Sentence Patterning Charts Picture File Card sorts (Promote use of L1 for processing) Numbered Heads Together (Promote use of L1 for processing) Corners Fishbowl Inside-Outside Circle (Conga Line) Jigsaw Round table Think Pair Share/Turn & Talk/10-2 (Promote use of L1 for processing) Quiz Quiz Trade Three Step Interview Sentence Stems/Frames
Cooperative learning is equally effective in the L1. It promotes development of academic language in the student’s first language. Activities that use L1 and L2 provide oral practice in both languages when students must interact with those who do and don’t speak their language. Informal assessment of L1 may include oral reading of text and writing in L1.
Narrative Input Tell a story one picture at a time, text mounted on the back of the pictures Students retell the story Write their version on chart paper, different color for each student Rewrite on sentence strips Mix the strips, have the small group reassemble the story Cut into words, reassemble again Chant – write a chant (with pattern) from content of the story or text May be done with non-fiction as long as there is a narrative version of the information 31
ArticleAdjectiveNounVerbAdverbPrep. Phrase Thecuriouschickenwantedbadlyto get to the other side. Question Patterning Chart Interrogativ e VerbArt./NounVerbArt./Noun Whydidthe chickencrossthe road?
Download pictures of content related to topic Use for sorting Tell students categories (more beginning ) or Students develop their own categories Use to support concepts throughout the unit Students tell their rationale for sorts or describe events in the pictures Builds background for discussion and writing
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Corners of the classroom are designated for focused discussion of four aspects of a topic. Levels 1, 2, 3: Label corners with an accompanying illustration, give a student- friendly definition. Students individually think and write about the topic for a short time. Levels 1, 2, 3: Provide word wall with key words and sentence frames. Level 1: May draw a response. Students group into the corner of their choice and discuss the topic. Levels 1, 2, 3: Students hear many valid points of view; focused discussion develops deeper thinking about topic. At least one student from each corner shares about the corner discussion. Level 1: May choose to have another student help share about the discussion. Kagan (1986)
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Part of the group sits in a close circle, facing inward; the other part of the group sits in a larger circle around them. Level 1: Seat in outside circle. Prepare students by reviewing what is known about the topic with visual cues. Pre-teach key words, e.g. new. Levels 2 and 3: Seat in either circle. Students on the inside discuss a topic while those outside listen for new information and/or evaluate the discussion according to pre-established criteria. Level 1: Provide listening template for what is known, with space to record/draw what may be new. (May be provided all students.) Level 2: Practice and post sentence frames useful for participation in discussions, e.g. “I learned/noticed/observed... “ Groups reverse positions.Levels 1 and 2: Practice and post sentence frames useful for participation in discussions, e.g. “I learned/noticed/observed... “
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Students stand in concentric circles facing each other. Level 1: Practice and post interrogative sentence frames, e.g. “Why did... ?” Levels 1, 2, and 3: Stand in either circle. Students in the outside circle ask questions; those inside answer. Levels 1 and 2: Use sentence frames to articulate a question. Answer with phrases or complete sentences. Level 3: Answer with complete sentences. On a signal, students in the outside circle rotate to create new partnerships. Levels 1, 2, 3: Talking one-on-one with a variety of partners gives risk-free practice in speaking skills. Students listen and speak. On another signal, students trade inside/outside roles. Levels 1, 2, 3: Interactions can be structured to focus on specific speaking skills.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Group students evenly into “expert” groups. Level 1: Distribute into different expert groups. Expert groups read one passage of text or study one topic or aspect of a topic in depth. Levels 1 & 2: Provide visual supports for material. Pre-teach key vocabulary. Regroup students so that each new group has at least one member from each expert group. Levels 1, 2, 3: Becoming an expert provides in-depth understanding in one aspect of study. Experts report on their study. Other students learn from the experts. Level 1: May request a buddy to assist with reporting. Levels 1, 2, 3: Learning from peers provides breadth of understanding of over-arching concepts.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Students number off within each group.Levels 1, 2, 3: Groups are heterogeneous. Teacher prompts or gives a directive.Level 1: Prompt is paraphrased using simple language, accompanied with gestures and./or illustration. Students think individually about the topic.Levels 1, 2: May think about the topic in L1. Levels 1, 2, 3: Group discussion provides each student with language and concept understanding. Groups discuss the topic so that any member of the group can report for the group. Level 1, 2: Key vocabulary for discussion has been pre-taught and is displayed. Levels 1, 2, 3: Sentence frames for academic discussion are reviewed and posted, e.g. “I want to add to your idea.” Teacher calls a number and the student from each group with that number reports for the group, providing an opportunity for evaluation of individual and group progress. Level 1: May require assistance from another group member. Levels 2 & 3: Benefit from written notes.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Seat students around a table in groups of four Levels 1, 2, 3: Seat students in heterogeneous groups. Teacher asks a question with many possible answers. Level 1: May consider response in L1. Levels 1, 2, 3: Encourage appreciation for diversity of opinion and thought. Each student around the table writes answers to the question a different way. Pass the page to the next student quickly. Set a time, one or two minutes. Eliciting multiple answers enhances language fluency. Level 1: May respond with simple words or phrases, a more developed response in L1, or may repeat in English what another student has said. Levels 2, 3: Encourage multiple responses by practicing and posting discussion sentence frames, e.g. “I have a different idea...” or “ In my opinion,... “
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Students think about a topic suggested by the teacher. Levels 1, 2, 3: The opportunity for self-talk during the individual think time allows the student to formulate thoughts before speaking. Level 1: May consider topic in L1. Pairs discuss the topic.Levels 1, 2, 3: Create pairs by selecting partners at adjacent proficiency levels, e.g. Level 1 with Level 2, Level 2 with Level 3, or Level 3 with Proficient. Levels 1, 2: Support by pre-teaching key vocabulary, providing bilingual or other dictionaries. One student from the pair individually shares information with the class. Levels 1, 2, 3: Discussion with a partner reduces performance anxiety and enhances understanding. Level 1: May benefit more from listening to others in lieu of speaking before the whole class.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Students write questions related to the content on cards. Level 1 students may write questions in L1. Students mill around the room to music. When the music stops, they form a pair and ask each other their question. Level 1 students partner with students who speak their own language. Level 2 may partner in L1 for their first pairing. If the answerer knows the answer, they say it. If not, the questioner explains the answer. Student trade cards. Music begins, students mill and find new partners.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Students form pairs.Levels 1, 2, 3: Create pairs by selecting partners at adjacent proficiency levels, e.g. Level 1 with Level 2, Level 2 with Level 3, or Level 3 with Proficient. Student A interviews student B about a topic. Interviewing supports language acquisition by providing scripts for expression. Levels 1, 2: Provide frames for interview questions, e.g. “What do you think about... ?” or “Would you rather... or... ?” Levels 1, 2: Also practice and provide response frames, e.g. “I would prefer to... “ or “I think/believe/notice...” Partners reverse roles.Levels 1, 2, 3: Responding provides opportunities for structured self-expression. Student A shares with the class information from student B; then B shares information from student A. Level 1: Structured exchange provides a rehearsal, reducing performance anxiety. Reporting on what partner said is easier than reporting own response.
DescriptionTeaching Tips for ELL Prepare cards that can be matched as pairs, such as a word and its definition. Level 1: May need word or definition explained/paraphrased before activity. Hand one card to each student.Level 1: Select cards with simple language. Students mingle and talk about their cards. Levels 1, 2, 3: Discussions provide language and concept understanding. Teacher calls “Match,” and each student finds the partner whose card matches with his or her own. Students exchange cards and mingle again. Levels 1, 2, 3: Mingling encourages students to have multiple conversations with an academic focus.
Pick at least two of the activities and try them in a lesson. Bring feedback to your next staff or team meeting. Try someone else’s idea. Thank you for your time and for your work!
Bailey, Allison & Heritage, Margaret (2008) English Learner Literacy Development through Formative Assessment of Oral Language. Schools Moving Up webinar California Dept. of Education (2010) Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches Kinsella, Kate & Dutro, Susana (2011) English Language Development: Issues & Implementation at Grades Six Through Twelve. Schools Moving Up webinar Kagan, Spencer (1994) Kagan Cooperative Learning National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (2006) Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners. Center for Applied Linguistics Thomas, Wayne & Collier, Virginia (1997) School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition