3Pre-Reading Activities Activate background knowledgePreview the text to build expectationsFrom Aebersold and Field (1997)
41) Activate and Build Background Knowledge (Hand out ‘schema’ texts )Aebersold and Field (p. 68) suggest three reasons for this stage:Recall existing knowledge, bring it to bear on the textStudents anticipate what is coming up (Manson example)Appropriate introduction will introduce key vocabulary items
52) Preview the text to build expectations Previewing a text might includeLooking at context for clues:The titlePhotos, captionsAuthor, source, subtitle, subheadings, drawingsRead the intro, and identify key issuesRead the conclusion paragraph if presentSkim the textRead first or topic sentences of each paragraphScan parts of the text for specific info
9A Strategies-based Approach Strategies are the key to learner successBefore and while reading. Attempts to intervene during the reading process, at the moment that learners are deploying strategiesAims to make understanding of strategies explicit, for learners to reflect on their strategy useIt is based on L1 and L2 research identifying the importance of strategy use in reading as a prediction of success
10A Typical ‘While Reading’ Process Students look at a ‘cohesive’ section of the textA)Ss determine what the key words are in this section.Based on this, guess the main idea of the section (in one sentence)T checks answers, asking how students got those words(with the same section of text)Ss guess what is coming up in the next sectionWHAT STRATEGIES ARE BEING MADE EXPLICIT IN A? B?
11Example : Modern Fathers have Pleasures and Problems What is the first coherent piece of text?What keywords would you identify that you hope students might uncover ?What is the main point of the section that you hope students might uncover ?Look at the lesson plan!Look at the teacher narrative
12Example 2: Our Future Stocks Teacher explains that cohesion is often created in a text via related wordsUsing an OHT, identifies key expression in the first sentenceIdentifies related vocabulary items in subsequent sentencesConnects items by drawing lines so that the connection is clear/explicitInvites Ls to do the same with subsequent paragraphs
13Monitoring Text Comprehension and Adjusting strategies Aebersold and Green advocate making strategy use explicit so that learners can identify which strategies they are using/not usingAdditionally, they suggest that exercises be provided which allow learners to check the success of the strategies they are performingWhere strategies are absent or not effective, is are encouraged to identify alternative strategies.
14ReflectionsIt is an interference strategy that some teachers and learners must might invasiveIs it strategy use gone too far?What about language building, lexis building? Language skills.