BICS Context embedded Face-to-face communication Cues to support listening/comprehension and communication Cognitively undemanding Every-day language Simpler language structures Time for acquisition and mastery – approximately 2 years
CALP Context reduced Abstract language Fewer contextual cues Cognitively demanding Discussion of abstract concepts More complex language structures Specialized vocabulary Time for acquisition and mastery: 5 to 7 years Depends on educational background The distance between L1 and L2 plays role Distance between L1 and L2 culture plays role
Educational Trends in Saudi Arabia Learning / Teaching Style Limited or no course syllabus or detailed class schedule Lectures in large auditoriums Limited engagement of students during lectures Expression of student’s beliefs and opinions is discouraged Attendance policies are flexible Emphasis on rote learning, memorization, and recitation Teaching/learning to the test
Educational Trends in Saudi Arabia Assessment Limited use of ongoing assessment Final course grade often depends on a single exam Test content tied directly to lectures and textbook Teachers expect students to restate content exactly Cheating is common
References Cummins, J. (1984). Wanted: A theoretical framework for relating language proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students. Language proficiency and academic achievement 10. Cummins, J. (1999). BICS and CALP: Clarifying the Distinction. Flaitz, J. (2003). Understanding Your International Students An Educational, Cultural, and Linguistic Guide. Michigan Press.