Bones of Lower Limb & Pelvis › Hip Bone › Femur › Tibia › Fibula › Patella › Tarsals › Metatarsals › Phalanges
Vertebral Column It consists of 7 Cervical [Atlas, Axilla] 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 1 Sacrum [5 fused bone] 1 Coccyx [4 fused bone] The bodies of the bones are separated from each other by intervertebral discs consisting of Cartilage.
Thoracic Cage Is formed by 12 thoracic Vertebrae 12 pairs if Ribs 1 Sternum
Bone Markings Elvations Depressions Condyle (rounded articular area) Crest (ridge of bone) Epicondyle (eminence adjacent to a condyle) Line (linear elevation) Malleolus (rounded process) Facet (flattend articular surface) Process (prominence area) Protuberance (projection) Spine (pointed projection) Spinous process (projecting spinelike part) Head (prominent articular end) Trochanter (large, blunt elevation) Tubercle (small, raised eminence) Tuberosity (large, rounded elevation) Foramen (hole) Fossa (depression) Groove or sulcus ( furrow depression) Fissure (slit-like opening) Notch (indentation) Sinus (cavity or hallow space in a bone) 8
1. Vertebrae 2. Sternum 3. Ribs 9
Ⅰ. The Vertebrae In a child, the normal number of the separate vertebrae is 33, which include 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal vertebrae.
A. The Vertebrae 1. Composition: Cervical vertebrae: C 1 – C 7 Thoracic vertebrae: T 1 – T 12 Lumbar vertebrae: L 1 – L 5 13 C5C5C5C5 C4C4C4C4 T6T6T6T6 T7T7T7T7 T9T9T9T9 T 12 C3C3C3C3 C7C7C7C7 T6T6T6T6 L1L1L1L1 L5L5L5L5 L2L2L2L2
14 General Feature of a Vertebra 2. General Feature of a Vertebra 1) vertebral body (centrum) 2) vertebral arch -- a. pedicles superior & inferior notches b. laminae vertebral arch → 7 processes i. Spinous process ii. 2-Transverse process iii. 2-Superior articular process iv. 2-Inferior articular proc. 3) vertebral foramen vertebral canal Bones of the Trunk Intervertebral notch
1) Atlas (C 1 ) a. anterior arch b. posterior arch c. lateral masses 15 2) Axis (C 2 ) odontoid process Bones of the Trunk 3) Vertebra prominens (C 7 ) spinous process non-bifid, long Landmark: Landmark: spinous process can be easily felt. C7C7C7C7
In the adult, the 5 sacral vertebrae fused with each other to form the sacrum, 4 coccygeal vertebrae to form the coccyx
The fourth thoracic vertebra vertebral body The pedicle of vertebral arch Superior articular process Transverse prosess Spinous process Vertebral foramen
The fourth thoracic vertebra vertebral body Superior articular process Transverse prosess Spinous process Vertebral foramen Transverse costal fovea
The pedicle of vertebral arch Superior vertebral notch inferior vertebral notch vertebral body Spinous process inferior articular process
intervertebral foramen Transverse costal fovea superior costal fovea inferior costal fovea The lateral view of the 6th 7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae
1. The thoracic vertebrae The characters of thoracic vertebrae are as follows: (1)They have two costal fovea on each side of their bodies; (2) They have transverse fovea on their transverse processes (apart from those of the lower two thoracic vertebrae). (3)The spines of thoracic vertebrae are long and downward sloping, the articular facets of articular processes are relatively vertical.
Spinous process Transverse costal fovea inferior costal fovea superior costal fovea
Transverse costal fovea superior costal fovea inferior costal fovea The lateral view of the 6th 7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae
The characters of Cervical vertebrae are as follows: (1)They have transverse foramen in each transverse process; (2)The end of the transverse process is bifurcated into anterior and posterior tubercls. (3)The spines are short and bifid except the first and the seventh.
The fourth cervical vertebra, superior view Spinous process Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen anterior tubercle posterior tubercle
The fourth cervical vertebra, superior view bifid spinous process Transverse foramen anterior tubercle posterior tubercle
The first cervical vertebra which is also called as the atlas, It has no body and no spine. It consists of anterior and posterior arches united on each side by a lateral mass. There is fovea dentis at the middle of the posterior surface of the anterior arch.
The superior view of the atlas anterior arch posterior arch lateral mass fovea dentis Superior articular surface
The superior view of the atlas anterior arch posterior arch lateral mass fovea dentis Superior articular surface
fovea dentis inferior articular surface anterior tubercle posterior tubercle Transverse foramen The inferior view of the atlas
inferior articular surface anterior tubercle posterior tubercle Transverse foramen The inferior view of the atlas
The second cervical vertebra which is also called as the axis, It bears the odontoid process (dens) on the superior aspect of its body, on which there is an anterior articular surface of dens for articulation with the fovea dentis of atlas.
The superior view of the axis dens posterior articular surface
The anterior view of the axis dens anterior articular surface
The seventh cervical vertebra is known as vertebra prominens. Its nonbifid spine is relatively long and can be easily felt. Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen Spinous process The seventh cervical vertebra, superior view
3. The lumbar vertebrae Their vertebral bodies are larger than those of other vertebrae. The spines of them are strong, square and horizontal. The articular processes of lumbar vertebrae are almost straight in a vertical plane with articular facets which lie in the sagittal plane.
The fourth lumbar vertebra, lateral view Spinous process inferior articular process Superior articular process vertebral body
The fourth lumbar vertebra, superior view vertebral body Superior articular process The articular surface of superior articular process
The first lumbar vertebra The fourth lumbar vertebra spinal cord
StructuresItemsCervical Thoracic Lumbar Body (Shape) (Size) (Structure) elliptic small uncus process heart-shape medium costal facets bean shaped large Vertebral Foramen (Shape) (Size) triangular large Round small triangular medium Spinous Process (Direction) (Shape) (Size) posterior Bifid small Inferoposterior Slender long posterior lattened large Transverse Process (Direction) (Shape) (Structure) anterolateral widened foramen transverse posterolateral club-shaped costal facet lateral slender accessory process Articular Surface (Position) horizontalcoronarysagittal 40 Bones of the Trunk
Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae
4.The sacrum It is made up of five fused vertebrae and roughly triangular. The sacrum possesses a base, a apex, the anterior (pelvic), dorsal, and lateral surfaces. anterior view of sacrum Base of sacrum promentory of sacrum Apex of sacrum anterior sacral foramen Transverse line
The Sacrum S 1 - S 5 sacral vertebrae fused after puberty. 1. Base -- promontory, ala, superior articular process 2. Apex of Sacrum 43 Bones of the Trunk
44 3. Pelvic (Anterior) Surface – transverse lines (ridges) anterior sacral foramen 4. Dorsal (Posterior) Surface median sacral crest posterior sacral foramen sacral horn sacral tuberosity Acupuncture therapy at “eight holes”: acupuncture therapy at the eight posterior sacral foramina for some diseases in pelvis. Bones of the Trunk
45 5. Lateral Part – auricular surface 6. Sacral Hiatus Sacral anesthesia: Sacral anesthesia: anesthetic agents are injected through the sacral hiatus for anal operation. Sacralization: Sacralization: enlarged transverse process in one or two sides of L 5, which looks like parts of the sacrum Lumbarization: Lumbarization: S 1 is fused with the tranverse processes of the L 5. Bones of the Trunk
posterior view of sacrum poserior sacral foramen Auricular surface sacral canal Median sacral crest sacral hiatus sacral cornu
Systematic Anatomy Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University 47 The Coccyx fused of 3-4 coccygeal vertebrae at 30 years. Coccygeal cornua Coccygeal apex Bones of the Trunk Anterior viewPosterior view
It is roughly triangular, tapering to an apex below. The base is articulated with the apex of the sacrum. anterior view of coccyx Coccygeal cornu Transverse prosess
When the vertebrae are placed in series, these foramina form the vertebral canal which lodges the spinal cord and its coverings.
Each rib consists of the costal bone and the costal cartilage. The ribs are connected behind with the vertebral column and are twelve in number on each side. Bones of the Trunk
Ribs (costal bone & costal cartilage) Ribs (costal bone & costal cartilage) Division: 1. true ribs: R 1 – R 7 2. false ribs: R 8 – R 12 floating ribs: R 11 – R 12 Structures: 1. Costal Head 2. Costal Neck 3. Costal Body costal tubercle costal angle costal groove 51 Bones of the Trunk
anterior view of thoracic cage costal bone costal cartilage Rib sternum costal arch The eleventh rib The twelfth rib
costal head costal neck costal tubercle costal shaft costal groove Lateral surface medial surface Anterior end The seventh costal bone costal angle
costal head costal neck costal tubercle costal shaft costal groove medial surface The seventh costal bone costal angle Anterior end
costal head costal neck costal tubercle Tubercle for scalenus anterior sulcus for subclvian artery sulcus for subclvian vein Superior view of the first costal bone Anterior end
Tuberosity for serratus anterior costal neck costal head costal tubercle Anterior end Superior view of the second costal bone
The second rib The twelfth rib The first rib
The upper seven pairs of ribs connected anteriorly by their costal cartilages to the sternum, and are referred to as true ribs. The lower five pairs of ribs fail to reach the sternum, and are referred to as false ribs. The costal cartilages of the eighth, ninth and tenth pairs of ribs join the costal cartilage immediately above to form the costal arch. The cartilages of the eleventh and twelfth are free. So the two ribs are called floating ribs
59 Bones of the Trunk First Rib short, curved, flattened. short, curved, flattened. Superior surface Superior surface tubercle for scalenus anterior tubercle for scalenus anterior sulcus for subclavian a. sulcus for subclavian a. sulcus for subclavian v. sulcus for subclavian v. Inferior surface Inferior surface Fracture of the rib: Fracture of the rib: frequently multiple by direct or indirect violence.
3-The Sternum 3-The Sternum 1. Manubrium – jugular (suprasternal) notch clavicular notch costal notch 2. Body -- costal notches 3. Xiphoid Process junction of manubrium & body → Sternal (Louis) Angle ( which is slightly convex forward and easily palpated even in the obese. ) Fused as one bone at the age of >40 Localization of rib: Localization of rib: level of sternal angle is at second rib. 60 Bones of the Trunk 150 ˚
61 Post. View Ant. View Sternum Bones of the Trunk 2nd costal notch 7th costal notch
Body of sternum Manubrium of sternum Xiphoid process Clavicular notch Jugular notch Sternal angle Costal notch Anterior view of sternum
For the lateral sides of the sternal angle are articulated with the second costal cartilage, so according to this, the order of the ribs and the intercostal space can be determined. Manubrium of sternum Body of sternum Sternal angle Xiphoid process Costal notch for the second rib Lateral view of sternum