4Appendicular skeleton It consists ofBones of Upper Limb & ShoulderClavicleScapulaHumerusUlnaRadiusCarpals [Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform, ][Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate,]MetacarpalsPhalanges
5Bones of Lower Limb & Pelvis Hip BoneFemurTibiaFibulaPatellaTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalanges
6Vertebral Column It consists of 7 Cervical [Atlas, Axilla] 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar1 Sacrum [5 fused bone]1 Coccyx [4 fused bone]The bodies of the bones are separated from each other by intervertebral discs consisting of Cartilage.
7Thoracic Cage Is formed by 12 thoracic Vertebrae 12 pairs if Ribs 1 Sternum
8General Description Bone Markings Condyle (rounded articular area) ElvationsDepressionsCondyle (rounded articular area)Crest (ridge of bone)Epicondyle (eminence adjacent to a condyle)Line (linear elevation)Malleolus (rounded process)Facet (flattend articular surface)Process (prominence area)Protuberance (projection)Spine (pointed projection)Spinous process (projecting spinelike part)Head (prominent articular end)Trochanter (large, blunt elevation)Tubercle (small, raised eminence)Tuberosity (large, rounded elevation)Foramen (hole)Fossa (depression)Groove or sulcus (furrow depression)Fissure (slit-like opening)Notch (indentation)Sinus (cavity or hallow space in a bone)
9Axial Skeleton Bones of the Trunk 1. Vertebrae 2. Sternum 3. Ribs
10Ⅰ. The Vertebrae 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and In a child, the normal number of the separate vertebrae is 33, which include7 cervical,12 thoracic,5 lumbar,5 sacral and4 coccygeal vertebrae.
13Bones of the Trunk 1. Composition: A. The Vertebrae Cervical vertebrae: C1 – C7Thoracic vertebrae: T1 – T12Lumbar vertebrae: L1 – L5L2L1T7C3T6L5C4T12C5C7T9T6
14Bones of the Trunk 2. General Feature of a Vertebra 1) vertebral body (centrum)2) vertebral arch --a. pediclessuperior & inferior notchesb. laminaevertebral arch → 7 processesi. Spinous processii. 2-Transverse processiii. 2-Superior articular processiv. 2-Inferior articular proc.3) vertebral foramenvertebral canalIntervertebral notch
15Bones of the Trunk 3. Special Vertebrae 2) Axis (C2) odontoid process 1) Atlas (C1) a. anterior arch b. posterior arch c. lateral massesC72) Axis (C2)odontoid process3) Vertebra prominens (C7)spinous process non-bifid, longLandmark: spinous process can be easily felt.
16In the adult,the 5 sacral vertebrae fused with each other to form the sacrum,4 coccygeal vertebrae to form the coccyx
17The pedicle of vertebral arch Spinous processTransverse prosessSuperior articular processThe pedicle of vertebral archvertebral bodyVertebral foramenThe fourth thoracic vertebra
19The pedicle of vertebral arch Superior vertebral notchThe pedicle of vertebral archinferior vertebral notchinferior articular processvertebral bodySpinous process
20Transverse costal fovea superior costal foveainferior costal foveaintervertebral foramenThe lateral view of the 6th 7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae
21The main characteristics of vertebrae in each region The thoracic vertebraeThe characters of thoracic vertebrae are as follows:(1)They have two costal fovea on each side of their bodies;(2) They have transverse fovea on their transverse processes (apart from those of the lower two thoracic vertebrae).(3)The spines of thoracic vertebrae are long and downward sloping, the articular facets of articular processes are relatively vertical.
22Transverse costal fovea superior costal foveainferior costal foveaSpinous process
23The lateral view of the 6th 7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae Transverse costal foveasuperior costal foveainferior costal foveaThe lateral view of the 6th 7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae
242-Cervical VertebraeThe characters of Cervical vertebrae are as follows:(1)They have transverse foramen in each transverse process;(2)The end of the transverse process is bifurcated into anterior and posterior tubercls.(3)The spines are short and bifid except the first and the seventh.
25The fourth cervical vertebra, superior view Spinous processVertebral foramenTransverse foramenposterior tubercleanterior tubercleThe fourth cervical vertebra, superior view
26The fourth cervical vertebra, superior view anterior tubercleTransverse foramenposterior tuberclebifid spinous processThe fourth cervical vertebra, superior view
27The first cervical vertebra which is also called as the atlas, It has no body and no spine.It consists of anterior and posterior arches united on each side by a lateral mass.There is fovea dentis at the middle of the posterior surface of the anterior arch.
28The superior view of the atlas Superior articular surfaceposterior archlateral massfovea dentisanterior archThe superior view of the atlas
29The superior view of the atlas Superior articular surfaceanterior archlateral massfovea dentisposterior archThe superior view of the atlas
30The inferior view of the atlas posterior tubercleinferior articular surfaceTransverse foramenfovea dentisanterior tubercleThe inferior view of the atlas
31The inferior view of the atlas inferior articular surfaceanterior tubercleTransverse foramenposterior tubercleThe inferior view of the atlas
32The second cervical vertebra which is also called as the axis, It bears the odontoid process (dens) on the superior aspect of its body, on which there is an anterior articular surface of dens for articulation with the fovea dentis of atlas.
33The superior view of the axis densposterior articular surfaceThe superior view of the axis
34The anterior view of the axis densanterior articular surfaceThe anterior view of the axis
35The seventh cervical vertebra, superior view The seventh cervical vertebra is known as vertebra prominens.Its nonbifid spine is relatively long and can be easily felt.Transverse foramenVertebral foramenSpinous processThe seventh cervical vertebra, superior view
363. The lumbar vertebraeTheir vertebral bodies are larger than those of other vertebrae. The spines of them are strong, square and horizontal.The articular processes of lumbar vertebrae are almost straight in a vertical plane with articular facets which lie in the sagittal plane.
38The fourth lumbar vertebra, superior view vertebral bodySuperior articular processThe articular surfaceof superior articularprocessThe fourth lumbar vertebra, superior view
39spinal cordThe first lumbar vertebraThe fourth lumbar vertebra
40 Comparison of the regional vertebrae. Bones of the Trunk Comparison of the regional vertebrae.StructuresItemsCervicalThoracicLumbarBody(Shape)(Size)(Structure)ellipticsmalluncus processheart-shapemediumcostal facetsbean shapedlargeVertebral Foramen(Shape) (Size)triangularRoundSpinous Process(Direction) (Shape) (Size)posteriorBifidInferoposteriorSlenderlonglattenedTransverse Process(Direction) (Shape) (Structure)anterolateralwidenedforamen transverseposterolateralclub-shapedcostal facetlateralslenderaccessory processArticular Surface(Position)horizontalcoronarysagittal
42anterior sacral foramen 4.The sacrumIt is made up of five fused vertebrae and roughly triangular. The sacrum possesses a base, a apex, the anterior (pelvic), dorsal, and lateral surfaces.Base of sacrumpromentory of sacrumanterior sacral foramenTransverse lineApex of sacrumanterior view of sacrum
43Bones of the Trunk The Sacrum B. The Sacrum & Coccyx S1 - S5 sacral vertebrae fused after puberty.1. Base -- promontory, ala, superior articular process2. Apex of Sacrum
44Bones of the Trunk 3. Pelvic (Anterior) Surface – transverse lines (ridges)anterior sacral foramen4. Dorsal (Posterior) Surfacemedian sacral crestposterior sacral foramensacral hornsacral tuberosityAcupuncture therapy at “eight holes”:acupuncture therapy at the eightposterior sacral foramina for somediseases in pelvis.
45Bones of the Trunk 5. Lateral Part – auricular surface 6. Sacral HiatusSacral anesthesia: anesthetic agents are injected through the sacral hiatus for anal operation.Sacralization: enlarged transverse process in one or two sides of L5, which looks like parts of the sacrumLumbarization: S1 is fused with the tranverse processes of the L5.
47Bones of the Trunk The Coccyx fused of 3-4 coccygeal vertebrae at 30 years.Coccygeal cornuaCoccygeal apexAnterior viewPosterior viewDept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao UniversitySystematic Anatomy
48anterior view of coccyx It is roughly triangular, tapering to an apex below. The base is articulated with the apex of the sacrum.Coccygeal cornuTransverse prosessanterior view of coccyx
49When the vertebrae are placed in series, these foramina form the vertebral canal which lodges the spinal cord and its coverings.
50Bones of the Trunk Ⅱ. The Ribs (Costae ) Each rib consists of the costal bone and the costal cartilage. The ribs are connected behind with the vertebral column and are twelve in number on each side.
58The upper seven pairs of ribs connected anteriorly by their costal cartilages to the sternum, and are referred to as true ribs.The lower five pairs of ribs fail to reach the sternum, and are referred to as false ribs.The costal cartilages of the eighth, ninth and tenth pairs of ribs join the costal cartilage immediately above to form the costal arch. The cartilages of the eleventh and twelfth are free. So the two ribs are called floating ribs
59short, curved, flattened. Bones of the TrunkFirst Ribshort, curved, flattened.Superior surfacetubercle for scalenus anteriorsulcus for subclavian a.sulcus for subclavian v.Inferior surfaceFracture of the rib: frequently multiple by direct or indirect violence.
60Bones of the Trunk 3-The Sternum jugular (suprasternal) notch 1.Manubrium –jugular (suprasternal) notchclavicular notchcostal notch2. Body -- costal notches3. Xiphoid Processjunction of manubrium & body →Sternal (Louis) Angle (which is slightly convex forward and easily palpated even in the obese.)Fused as one bone at the age of >40Localization of rib: level of sternal angle is at second rib.150˚
61Bones of the Trunk Sternum 2nd costal notch Ant. View Post. View 7th costal notch
62Anterior view of sternum Jugular notchClavicular notchManubrium of sternumSternal angleBody of sternumCostal notchXiphoid processAnterior view of sternum
63Costal notch for the second rib For the lateral sides of the sternal angle are articulated with the second costal cartilage, so according to this, the order of the ribs and the intercostal space can be determined.Manubrium of sternumSternal angleCostal notch for the second ribBody of sternumXiphoid processLateral view of sternum