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The Transition from Reformation to Exploration The Age of Exploration Ch 18.

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Presentation on theme: "The Transition from Reformation to Exploration The Age of Exploration Ch 18."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Transition from Reformation to Exploration The Age of Exploration Ch 18

2 Lesson 1: It’s a Whole New World The Reformation marked a time where the power of the Catholic church had declined During the Renaissance, artists and writers adopted a view of life that promoted the human’s ability to change and/or control the world This, along with the growing wealth of independent nations, made the concept of exploration finally realistic

3 Compass Chinese Invention (Qin Dynasty) 221-206 BC First used by Chinese fortune tellers during the Qin dynasty Used lodestones (mineral w/ iron oxide that aligned in a north-south direction Someone figured out that it was better at pointing you in the right direction than predicting your future Zheng He was the first person recorded to use the compass as a navigational tool He may have discovered “America” before Columbus

4 Technological Advances As political and religious changes were happening, navigational devices and better ships made more distant voyages possible (astrolabe & sextant)

5 Now the Europeans were ready to explore -CARAVEL  Many masts  New rudder  (easier to steer)  Faster

6 Got a map? Claudius Ptolemy Renaissance led to the study of ancient Arab maps Ptolemy drew maps, his book Geography was discovered by Europeans in 1406 Printing press invention allowed maps to be easily sold all over Europe His ideas on cartography (science of map making) and his system of longitude/latitude were very influential Ptolemy’s East-SE Asia

7 Why Explore? ambitious monarchs from France, Spain, England & Portugal wanted better (safer/faster) access to trade with the East Portugal headed toward Africa, while Spain, England, & France headed west

8 Let the Race Begin in Portugal Prince Henry the Navigator Led the way Developed a school focused on navigation – Made advances in cartography Bartolomeu Dias Commissioned to find a water route to India Sailed around the tip of Africa and into the Indian ocean Didn’t make it to India b/c his crew was afraid and made him stop

9 Success in India Vasco da Gama Successfully returned from India with jewels and spices A new trade route was established

10 Spain’s turn Christopher Columbus August, 1492 – Nina – Pinta – Santa Maria Landed in the Bahamas – San Salvador then Cuba – Explored Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Jamaica, & Trinidad No riches & certain he found the East “America” A German geographer, Martin Waldseemuller,accepted the claim of Amerigo Vespucci the he landed on the mainland before Columbus. He published a book and named the continent America in 1507

11 Are we there yet? Ferdinand Magellan Finished what Columbus started 1520- he headed south and found a way around the Americas The passage is called the Strait of Magellan He named the Pacific Ocean b/c it was peaceful (or pacific) Unfortunately, he was killed but his crew continued back to Spain through the new route First to circumnavigate the world

12 England Takes the Lead John Cabot 1497 – Henry VII sponsored Cabot who explored Newfoundland Interest was limited until…. Queen Elizabeth – a visionary Sir Humphrey Gilbert & Sir Walter Raleigh were sent to colonize America Raleigh named the territory he explored Virginia The Chesapeake Bay region

13 Je m’appelle Jacques Cartier 1524 Giovanni da Verrazano mapped the East Coast Cartier sailed past Newfoundland and entered the St. Lawrence River Exploration halted because the French Protestants and Catholics were at war

14 Meanwhile…. Successful Spanish Build a great empire in America Enslave Native Americans – To grow sugarcane – To mine gold/silver African slaves – were brought to work farms Cortes conquered the Aztec Pizarro conquered the Inca Become Enemies with England Henry VIII breaks from the Catholic Church Spain tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in the Netherlands The English came to the aid of the Dutch The Spanish Armada was defeated by England Now the English and Dutch were ready to explore again

15 The Spanish Defeat the Native Americans in Central and South America

16 The Commercial Revolution Mercantilism A country must gain power by building up its supply of gold and silver The best method:  Export (sell) more than you import (buy)  Set up colonies to produce goods not found in the mother country  The result: Trading Posts 

17 Developing Market Economy Why is Trade Important? Promotes wealth The need for trade creates the idea for needing investors (someone who will give money upfront to start a business with an expectation to earn more money in return) Cottage Industry – peasants hired to work from home Merchants were frustrated with artisans and guilds who charged too much for goods Peasants were hired for cheaper pay Called the cottage industry b/c they lived in cottages

18 Columbian Exchange Global Exchange Europe traded with the world People, goods, technology, ideas, & diseases were exchanged

19 Products Items to Europe Corn Potatoes Squash Beans Tomatoes Chocolate Chili peppers Peanuts Tobacco Items to America Grains – Wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice Coffee Tropical fruits Animals – Pigs, sheep, cattle, horses, chickens Sugarcane – Brought from Asia to farm

20 “I think I feel under the weather” European diseases kill millions of Native Americans Smallpox Measles malaria

21 L2 The Scientific Revolution

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