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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz

3 October 4, Assignments No late assignments will be accepted 2 nd Homework Due Now!!

4 October 4, Assignments Homework #3 – Due October 18 Design your own Webpage Keep in mind --- The world at large will see your page Don’t put private or sensitive information on your Webpage. Details and sample – see class page –

5 October 4, Midterm #1 Friday – October 11 Chapters 1 – 5 ~50 questions Multiple choice Bring Scantron form #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink) Bring your student ID Required to take exam

6 The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer Chapter 4 Part b

7 October 4, Objectives Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer Explain how data is represented in the computer Describe how the computer finds instructions and data Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit’s motherboard List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed

8 October 4, Number systems Binary Number: base 2 on and off 0,1 ones=2 0, twos=2 1, fours=2 2, etc = 0 base = 1 base = 2 base = 3 base = 10 base 10

9 October 4, Binary Number System We have 10 fingers Computers have devices with 2 states ^310^210^110^ the binary number 2^42^32^22^12^0place values (1 * 2^4) + (0 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0) = = 19

10 October 4, Hexadecimal Numbers Hexadecimal Number: base 16 alternative representation to binary 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F ones=16 0, sixteens=16 1, 256's=16 2, etc translation of hex into binary = 0 base 16 = 0 base = 1 base 16 = 1 base = A base 16 = 10 base = 10 base 16 = 16 base 10

11 October 4, Hexadecimal Table A (10) B (11) C (12) D (13) E (14) F (15)

12 October 4, Hexadecimal Example #1 Hexadecimal (called ‘hex’) is often written with a prefix of ‘0x’ 0xFF or 0xff 0xFF = = (0xF * 16^1) + (0xF * 16^0) = (15 * 16) + (15 * 1) = = 255

13 October 4, Hexadecimal Example #2 0x10 = = (0x1 * 16^1) + (0x0 * 16^0) = (1 * 16) + (0 * 1) = = 16 0xA5 = = (0xA * 16^1) + (0x5 * 16^0) = (10 * 16) + (5 * 1) = = 165

14 October 4, The System Unit The Black Box Houses electronic components Motherboard Storage devices Connections Some Apple Macintosh models have system unit inside monitor

15 October 4, The System Unit The Black Box Motherboard Microprocessor chip Memory chips Connections to other parts of the hardware Additional chips may be added – math coprocessor

16 October 4, The System Unit The Black Box Storage Devices Hard drive Floppy drive CD-ROM drive DVD-ROM drive

17 October 4, What is in our computer?

18 October 4, Table Camera view of Motherboard

19 October 4, Microprocessor CPU etched on a chip Chip size is ¼ x ¼ inch Composed of silicon Contains millions of transistors Electronic switches that can allow current to pass through

20 October 4, Microprocessor Components Control Unit – CU Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Registers System clock

21 October 4, Building a Better Microprocessor Computers imprint circuitry onto microchips Cheaper Faster Perform functions of other hardware Math coprocessor is now part of microprocessor Multimedia instructions are now part of microprocessor

22 October 4, Building a Better Microprocessor The faster the computer runs The cheaper it is to make The more reliable it is The more functions that are combined on a microprocessor:

23 October 4, Types of Microprocessors Intel Pentium Celeron Xeon Itanium Intel- compatible Cyrix AMD

24 October 4, Types of Microprocessors PowerPC Cooperative efforts of Apple, IBM, and Motorola Used in Apple Macintosh family of PCs Found in servers and embedded systems Alpha Manufactured by Compaq (formerly DEC) High-end servers and workstations

25 October 4, Semiconductor Memory Reliable Compact Low cost Low power usage Mass-produced economically Volatile Made up of tiny circuits, each able to represent ‘0’ or ‘1’ (bits)

26 October 4, Semiconductor Memory CMOS Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Uses little electricity Used in PC to store hardware settings that are needed to boot the computer Retains information with current from battery

27 October 4, RAM Keeps the instructions and data for current program Data in memory can be accessed randomly Easy and speedy access Volatile Can be Erased Written over

28 October 4, Types of RAM SRAM (Static RAM) Retains contents as long as power is maintained Faster than DRAM

29 October 4, Types of RAM DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Must be constantly refreshed Used for most PC memory because of size and cost SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) faster type of DRAM RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) Faster than SDRAM Expensive

30 October 4, Adding RAM Purchase memory modules that are packaged on circuit boards SIMMS – Chips on one side DIMMS – Chips on both sides Maximum amount of RAM that can be installed is based upon the motherboard design

31 October 4, Table Camera view of Memory Modules

32 October 4, ROM Programs and data that are permanently recorded at the factory Read-only Cannot be changed by the user Stores boot routine that is activated when computer is turned on Non-volatile

33 October 4, PROM Programmable ROM ROM burner can change instructions on some type of ROM chips

34 October 4, Bus Line Paths that transport electrical signals System bus Transports data between the CPU and memory Bus width Number of bits of data that can be carried at a time Normally the same as the CPUs word size Speed measured in MHz

35 October 4, Bus Line CPU can support a greater number and variety of instructions CPU can support a greater number and variety of instructions Larger bus width = More powerful computer CPU can transfer more data at a time = Faster computer CPU can reference larger memory addresses = More memory available

36 October 4, Expansion Buses Connect the motherboard to expansion slots Plug expansion boards into slots interface cards adapter cards Provides for external connectors / ports Serial Parallel

37 October 4, Expansion Buses

38 October 4, PC Buses and Ports ISASlow-speed devices like mouse, modem PCIHigh-speed devices like hard disks and network cards AGPConnects memory and graphics card for faster video performance USBSupports “daisy-chaining” eliminating the need for multiple expansion cards; hot-swappable IEEE 1394 (FireWire) High-speed bus connecting video equipment to the computer PC Card PCMCIA Credit card sized PC card devices normally found on laptops

39 October 4, What is in our computer?

40 October 4, Speed and Power What makes a computer fast? Microprocessor speed Bus line size Availability of cache L1 & L2 Flash memory RISC computers Parallel processing

41 October 4, Computer Processing Speed Time to execute an instruction Millisecond Microsecond Nanosecond Modern computers Picosecond In the future

42 October 4, Microprocessor Speed Clock speed Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Number of instructions per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Performance of complex mathematical operations One million floating-point operations per second (Megaflops – MFLOPS)

43 October 4, Cache Small block of very fast temporary memory Speed up data transfer Instructions and data used most frequently or most recently

44 October 4, Cache Step 1 Processor requests data or instructions Step 2 Go to address in main memory and read Step 3 Transfer to main CPU and cache Next processor request Look first at cache Go to memory PROCESSORPROCESSOR RAMRAM Cache

45 October 4, Types of Cache Internal cache Level 1 (L1) Built into microprocessor Up to 128KB External cache Level 2 (L2) Separate chips 256KB or 512 KB SRAM technology Cheaper and slower than L1 Faster and more expensive than memory

46 October 4, Flash Memory Nonvolatile RAM Used in Cellular phones Digital cameras Digital music recorders PDAs

47 October 4, Instruction Sets CISC Technology Complex Instruction Set Computing Conventional computers Many of the instructions are not used RISC Technology Reduced Instruction Set Computing Small subset of instructions Increases speed Programs with few complex instructions Graphics Engineering

48 October 4, Types of Processing Serial processing Execute one instruction at a time Fetch, decode, execute, store Parallel Processing Multiple processors used at the same time Can perform trillions of floating-point instructions per second (teraflops) Ex: network servers, supercomputers

49 October 4, Types of Processing Pipelining Instruction’s action need not be complete before the next begins Fetch instruction 1, begin to decode and fetch instruction 2 Super Scalar Executes multiple instructions per cycle

50 October 4,


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