Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Vision. Sensation and Perception: Important Vocabulary Terms Sensation is the process of receiving, transducing, and coding stimulus energy."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Vision
Sensation and Perception: Important Vocabulary Terms Sensation is the process of receiving, transducing, and coding stimulus energy in the world. –Stimulus energy is physical energy, such as light, sound, heat –Sense organs such as eyes, ears, skin receive energy
Sensation and Perception: Important Vocabulary Terms –Reception: the absorption of physical energy by receptors –Transduction: the conversion of physical energy into electrochemical energy
Sensation and Perception: Important Vocabulary Terms –Perception: the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning –Coding: a one-to-one communication between an aspect of a physical stimulus and an aspect of nervous system activity
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Sclera (A): –Outermost layer of eye; white, fibrous, protective globe Cornea (A1): Clear disk at front of eye; focuses light rays onto the receptor cells at back of eye (retina) Aqueous humor (B): Fluid in the very front of the eyeball; refracts light rays onto retina
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Iris (C): Colored part in center of eye; ring of muscles that controls amount of light that gets into eye Pupil (D): Opening in center of eye (appears black); constricts or dilates with movement of iris
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Lens (E): Along with cornea, focuses light onto receptor cells Vitreous humor (F): Fluid filling majority of eyeball; refracts lightwaves Retina (G): lined with visual receptor cells, rods and cones
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Rods (I) - most abundant in the periphery of the eye –120 million per retina –respond to faint light Cones (J) - most abundant in and around the fovea –6 million per retina –essential for color vision, which requires bright light Photopigments: chemicals released by rods and cones when struck by light
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System The fovea (G2): central portion of the human retina which allows for acute and detailed vision. –Packed tight with receptor cells
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Rods and cones are located in the outmost layer of the eye. They communicate their messages to neurons called bipolar cells (K) and horizontal cells, which are located closer to the center of the eye. Bipolar cells send messages to ganglion cells (L) and amacrine cells that are even closer to the center of the eye.
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Axons of ganglion cells (L1) join one another to form the optic nerve. The optic nerve (L2) exits through the back of the eye and travels to the brain.
Neuroanatomy Handout #4: The Visual System Blind spot (G1): The point at which the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye –it contains no receptor cells –It does contain retinal veins and arteries (H)
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors Perception of color is dependent upon the wavelength of the light.
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors “Visible” wavelengths depend upon species’ receptors. Human range: 350 nanometers (violet, short wavelength) to 700 nanometers (red, long wavelength). –Some species can detect ultraviolet light
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors Discrimination among colors depends upon the combination of responses by different neurons. Two major interpretations of color vision: 1.Trichromatic theory/Young-Helmholtz theory 2.Opponent-process theory
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors Trichromatic theory - Color perception occurs through the ratio of activity across the three types of cones : –short wavelength –medium-wavelength –long-wavelength
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors More intense light increases the brightness of the color but does not change the ratio and thus does not change the perception of the color itself.
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors The opponent-process theory (Ewald Hering) suggests that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites. –white/black –red/green –yellow/blue A possible mechanism for the theory is that bipolar cells are excited by one set of wavelengths and inhibited by another.
Negative color afterimage
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors The opponent-process and trichromatic theories can’t explain: Color constancy, the ability to recognize color despite changes in lighting. Retinex theory suggests the cortex compares information from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color for each area.
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors Color vision deficiency: impairment in perceiving color differences X-linked trait Causes: –lack of a type of cone –cone has abnormal properties Most common form: difficulty distinguishing between red and green
The Neural Basis of Visual Perception Ganglion cell axons form the optic nerve.
Optic chiasm: place where the two optic nerves meet. In humans, half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side of the brain. Most axons go to the lateral geniculate nucleus, a smaller amount to the superior colliculus and fewer go to other areas.
Visual field: the whole area of the world that you can see at a given time Receptive field: the portion of the visual field to which any one neuron responds
“Eyes Right” by Oliver Sacks From The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat
The Neural Basis of Visual Perception Some people with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) show blindsight, an ability to respond to visual stimuli that they report not seeing.
The Neural Basis of Visual Perception Visual agnosia is the inability to recognize objects despite satisfactory vision. –Caused by damage to the pattern pathway usually in the temporal cortex. Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognize faces. –Occurs after damage to the fusiform gyrus of the inferior temporal cortex.