Presentation on theme: "Beyond “Just Writing Out the Facts”:. Students often don’t see research as connected to their own thoughts or experiences: “A research paper is just."— Presentation transcript:
Students often don’t see research as connected to their own thoughts or experiences: “A research paper is just writing out the facts. It's not really what you think about it all those deep thoughts, is just writing out the facts.”~Ling Wei
The purpose of this presentation is to show how these types of writing can compliment each other and help second language (L2) writers overcome the challenges associated with each type of writing.
To do this, I will A). Present L2 scholarship on the debates between expressive and academic writing. B). Share findings from my research with multilingual writers that indicate the benefits of connecting expressive and academic writing. C). Suggest ways to design assignments that blend these types of writing
John (1995, p. 159): Focus on voice, identity, personal interests, meaning making. Limited number of genres (e.g. personal essay, literary texts)
Christie (1993) -Are “cruelly unfair” to language minority students Academic writing is critical for success in school and beyond. L2 writers are less familiar than their NES peers with the language, culture, audience, and genres used within academic writing. Academic conventions need to be made explicit to L2 writers.
Severino, Gilchrist, & Rainey (2010): Benefits of expressive writing for L2 writers: Increase agency Negotiate a sense of self that encompasses multiple identities
Worked with four adolescent L2 writers in a summer college preparatory program Their experiences with writing confirm the importance of both expressive and academic writing opportunities.
Four Interviews Observations in English classes College Admissions Essay for Common Application Compare/Contrast College Research Paper Artifact collection Student writing samples Assignment sheets
Native Language Background L1: Cantonese (also Mandarin) Moved to US in 7 th Grade (Currently a Senior) Studied English in China (age 10) Tested out of ESL in 9 th grade Resources Interests in track and science Abilities in lab reports and research papers Challenges Creative/Personal Writing Vocabulary Grammar
Native Language Background L1: French and Khran Came to the US in 3rd grade Started learning English in refugee camp in Ghana at age 5 Strengths Interest in music/songwriting Imagery Rhythm Word choice/code switching Challenges Selecting appropriate details Engagement with academic writing
Native Language Background L1: Spanish Moved from Peru at age 6 Strengths Interests in sports, music/songwriting Sensory detail Tone Rhythm Challenges Timed Writing Elaboration Invention
Native Language Background L1: Spanish Moved to US from Dominican Republic in 6 th Grade Mix of ELL and mainstream classes Strengths School yearbook staff Strong Voice Challenges Vocabulary/Grammar (in both Spanish and English)
Leki (1991/1992) Develops authorial expertise (p. 19): “avoids atomism implied by asking students to repeatedly gear up for different topics” “seeks instead to link together all writing assignments
Students choose topics that meet these criteria: Sustain interest Connect to personal experience
1). Current Knowledge What they already know about the topic and their personal involvement 2). Summaries Synthesize the summaries of three sources in an essay format 3). Survey Survey at least 20 people about the topic and report the results 4). Interview Interview an expert on the topic and write up the results 5).Final report Combine findings from steps 1-4 into coherent report
Ling Wei and Gabriella Allow them to develop a richer vocabulary and syntactic repertoire for writing about their own experiences by seeing how others write about similar topics Marie Increase engagement with research Jared Overcome writers block by building on prior knowledge and supplying plenty of content for writing
Ortmeier-Hooper, 2013 Let’s get CRAFTy Context/purpose Role Audience Form Topic
Entering/Incoming What Students already know Bridging What students need to know to succeed in school Advancing What students need to know to succeed in real world contexts and their future roles
BeginningAdvanced Form Single Step/FamiliarMulti Step/Unfamiliar -Journal entry -Research paper Audience Small/Immediate Large/Distant - Friend - General Public Purpose Singular/Low Stake Multiple/High Stake -Learn about topic -Inform/persuade
Address a new context/topic through familiar Role, Audience, and Form Context: Use research for evaluation and persuasion Role: Son/daughter Audience: Parent Form: Letter Topic: College Selection
Learn new forms with familiar topics/audiences/roles Context: Persuasion Role: Student Audience: Principal Form: Compare/Contrast essay Topic: Dress code
Design a CRAFT prompt for second language writers with whom you have or currently are working.
Literacy Scavenger Hunt (Ortmeir-Hooper, 2013): Students and teachers bring in writing samples Small-group then whole class-discussion on Context Role Audience Form Topic Create a master list to display in classroom
Influenced by Atwell’s (1998) Writing Territories: Strengths in the CRAFT of Writing Stretches in the CRAFT of Writing Context: Role: Audience: Form: Topic