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Building L2 & L3 service with ALU Service Router

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Presentation on theme: "Building L2 & L3 service with ALU Service Router"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building L2 & L3 service with ALU Service Router
This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ Building L2 & L3 service with ALU Service Router Gatot Susilo October 7, 2013

2 This is a placeholder image only
This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ Service Router

3 Pt-to-Pt L2-VPN: Virtual Lease Line (PWE-3 RFC3985)
Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge Point-to-point service emulation (i.e., ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, TDM) over IP/MPLS (i.e., Packet Switched Networks) Require bidirectional tunnel between two PEs Inner connection is identified by MPLS label Uses T-LDP for inner label exchange PWE-3 PE1 PE2 CE1 CE2 AC1 AC2 IP/MPLS Network Bidirectional Tunnel IP (GRE) or MPLS T-LDP

4 Service Entities (Point to Point)
T-LDP is automatically created when SDP is created. T-LDP is responsible for exchanging VC-Label PE1 PE2 IP/MPLS Network PWE-3 AC1 AC2 CE1 CE2 T-LDP Bidirectional Tunnel IP (GRE) or MPLS Pseudowire Emulation Edge to Edge - RFC3985 Customer is also referred as subscriber Identified by customer ID

5 Service Entity (Continue)
SDP A logical way to direct uni-directional service tunnel Support GRE (IP tunneling) or MPLS as service tunnel Provide a better control for (LSP) tunnel selection Multiple services can share the same SDP Support forwarding class based (LSP) tunnel selection Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol designed to encapsulate a wide variety of network layer packets inside IP tunneling packets. The original packet is the payload for the final packet. The protocol is used on the Internet to secure virtual private networks. GRE was developed by Cisco and was designed to be stateless; the tunnel end-points do not monitor the state or availability of other tunnel end-points. This feature helps service providers support IP tunnels for clients, who won't know the service provider's internal tunneling architecture; and it gives clients the flexibility of reconfiguring their IP architectures without worrying about connectivity. GRE creates a virtual point-to-point link with routers at remote points on an IP internetwork.

6 Service Entity (Continue)
Internet Enhanced Service (IES) L2-VPN: EPIPE, VPLS (Multipoint), APIPE, FPIPE, CPIPE (Pt-to-Pt) L3-VPN: IPIPE (Pt-to-Pt), VPRN (Multipoint) Mirroring SAP A local entity and is uniquely identified by The physical Ethernet port or SONET/SDH port or TDM channel The encapsulation type (e.g., Null, Dot1q, QinQ, IPCP, BCP-null, BCP-dot1q, ATM, Frame Relay, Cisco-HDCLC) The encapsulation identifier Applicable to access port only A single port can contain multiple SAPs PPP

7 Alcatel-Lucent Suite of Point-to-Point Pseudowire Services
Multi-Service Edge Alcatel-Lucent Suite of Point-to-Point Pseudowire Services Ethernet UNI FR UNI Ethernet UNI IP/MPLS Network FR UNI IP PW IP PW ATM UNI FR PW ATM UNI ATM PW FR UNI Ethernet PW ATM 7750 SR LSP 7750 SR ATM UNI Ethernet UNI Frame/ ATM UNI Note: The termination of routed or routed-bridged encapsulation of ATM traffic into an IES or IP-VPN is supported Leverage PWE3 for frame relay-ATM-Ethernet Service and Network Interworking

8 Multipoint L2-VPN: Virtual Private LAN Service (RFC4762)
Purpose To provide connectivity between geographically dispersed customer site across MANs and WANs, as if they are connected using LAN Two Categories of Applications Connectivity between customer routers: LAN routing application Connectivity between customer Ethernet switches: LAN switching application Use MPLS (Ethernet Pseudowire) in the core network (i.e., PEs interconnection) Multiple VPLS instances can be created on the same PE

9 Flooding for unknown unicast DA or broadcast/multicast frames
VPLS – Attributes Flooding for unknown unicast DA or broadcast/multicast frames Forwarding known DA to designated port Address Learning to build forwarding database (FDB) Perform standard learning, filtering, and forwarding actions as per IEEE802.1D-ORIG, IEEE802.1D-REV, and IEE802.1Q MAC Address Withdrawal using LDP Message to trigger address re-learning Use H-VPLS (Hub and Spoke) to reduce number of mesh PWs CE2 PE2 VPLS PE1 PE3 VPLS VPLS CE1 IP/MPLS Network CE3 VPLS PE4 CE4

10 Alcatel-Lucent Premium VPN Services
QoS policy runtime instantiation provides the ability to dynamically change bandwidth and QoS parameters for value-added services Support for OSPF allows VPN customer running OSPF to migrate to an IP-VPN backbone without changing their IGP, introduce BGP as the CE-PE protocol and stop relying on static routes for access to an IP-VPN service Internet Enable service interworking of VPWS using IP PW IP-VPN Frame Relay VPLS FR UNI 7750 SR IP-VPN IP-VPN Ethernet Ethernet UNI ATM IP/MPLS Backbone VPLS VPLS ATM UNI 7750 SR Frame Relay 7750 SR Ethernet IP-VPN FR UNI Ethernet VPLS ATM Ethernet UNI 7750 SR Ethernet UNI ATM UNI Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) to interoperate with traditional L2 switches and operate along with Managed VPLS to provide an effective dual homing solution Transparent Layer 2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) to transparently transport Layer 2 PDUs between CPEs, including translation between different STP types Terminate RFC 2684 routed bridged encapsulation of ATM traffic onto IES and IP-VPN services

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This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ QoS

12 Basic QoS on 7x50/7710 SR Product Family
Use differentiated service (DiffServ) model 8 Forwarding Classes (NC, H1, EF, H2, L1, AF, L2, and BE) Profile State (in profile  rate <= CIR; out of profile  rate > CIR) Separate queues for unicast and multicast traffic Allow one queue per forwarding class or one queue for multiple forwarding classes By default, remarking for EXP, DSCP, Dot1p iff: L2 traffic or a non-trusted IP interface The first network egress Not remarked explicitly by SAP ingress No explicit Dot1p to FC in default mapping 7750SR has 8K ingress and 8K egress queue per Flexible Fast Path, which services a single MDA. Pre-classification (Dot1p, IP Prec, DSCP, IP criteria, MAC criteria) FC + PS EXP – MPLS DSCP – IP Dot1p – Ethernet FC + PS Dot1p – Ethernet Allow Remarking for DSCP or IP Prec (applicable for L3 service only) Network Egress Network Ingress SAP Ingress SAP Egress

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This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ OAM

14 OAM IP ICMP Ping/Trace MPLS - LSP Ping/Trace PW VCCV Ping/Trace SDP SDP Ping SVC SVC Ping VPLS - MAC Ping/Purge/Populate/ Ethernet – 802.1ag/Y1731

15 Next Gen Hotspot 2.0 – Why Wi-Fi?
This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ Next Gen Hotspot 2.0 – Why Wi-Fi?

16 Wi-Fi Opportunity and Strategy to Success
By 2015 there will be 8B mobile devices; global mobile traffic will grow 26x to 6.6m TB/month where video will be 66% of all mobile traffic;1.2 million hotspot venues from 421K in 2010 worldwide (In-Stat Research Report) Mobile operators need more cost effective radio technologies to handle increasing data traffic Wi-Fi is global – same frequency band worldwide (2.4GHz and 5GHz) Wi-Fi is built into smart phones and devices Wi-Fi provides ~5x bandwidth (MHz) of Cellular (5GHz vs ~1GHz) Carrier grade Wi-Fi offers platform for delivering a host of new location-based services Strategy To Success Should complement operator’s spectrum Should be easy/transparent for the user Should be viable resource to meet users’ expectations Should be easily and cost-effectively integrate into existing 3G/4G architectures

17 Hotspot 2.0 Technology Enablers
Authentication and Roaming Hotspot Today Next Gen Hotspot 2.0 Network Discovery and Selection SSID 802.11u L2 Authentication None 802.1x L2 Air Encryption 802.11i L3 Authentication WebAuth, WISPr EAP SIM, AKA, TLS, TTLS Hotspot Network Untrusted Trusted Intellectual Property Right No Yes Interoperability VISION: Mobile Network: Turn on phone and secured Cellular connectivity WiFi Network: Turn on phone and get secured WiFi connectivity Automatic, Secured, EAP Based

18 ALU Light Radio WiFi Solutions
This is a placeholder image only. Please select an image to reflect the content of your PPT presentation. Visit our approved corporate photography collection on the MarCom Store at: https://all.alcatel-lucent.com/marcomstore/ ALU Light Radio WiFi Solutions

19 LIGHTRADIO WI-FI: 7750 WLAN G/W Solution Strengths
PGW/GGSN 7750 SR WLAN GW HGW/AP GRE per HGW/AP AAA DIAMETER S2a/S2b/Gn GTP HLR HSS AuC SS7 MAP or Diameter Internet & Media RADIUS Proxy Option to Breakout to Internet where cost-effective Unified authentication, authorization and accounting L2 transparency Auto-provisioned tunnels for operational simplicity Anchoring subscriber through PGW/GGSN is independent of WLAN-GW location using standard interfaces Flexible choice of transport: L2/IP/MPLS or IPSec Rapid inter-AP mobility (due to L2 transparency) No per-AP provisioning: SoftGRE tunnels auto-created Tunnel Scalability: tunnel state only if active subs Subscriber Scale: IP address sharing with L2-aware NAT Conservation of resources for migrant users Full flexibility for local breakout or GTP mobility Mobility between WiFi and Macro with address preservation WLAN GW N:1 redundancy with IP address preservation WLAN GW mobility with IP address preservation No IPSec required on UE No mobility functions required on AP (Simpler APs)

20 WLAN GW: Deployment Models
Edge 7x50 or 7705 SAR can encapsulate VLAN-only APs into GRE tunnels for a common model to GRE-capable APs 7x50 7750 WLAN GW 7x50 7750 WLAN GW Regular ESM with 1 VLAN per Sub or 1 VLAN per service 7x50 7750 WLAN GW VLANs GRE Tunnel Soft GRE benefits of scale and auto-provisioning on the WLAN GW Achievable with GRE-capable APs or For non GRE-capable APs, L2 aggregator device such as 7x50, 7705 SAR families can be used to provide GRE transport over IP toward WLAN GW 20 20 20

21 LIGHTRADIO WI-FI ARCHITECTURE ACCESS POINT OPTIONS
L2 Solution L3 Solution Offload SSID Offload SSID TUNNEL Bridge IP Flexible for L2 Wholesale L3 Wholesale with support for overlapping GTP Mobility with overlapping Faster Inter-AP mobility triggering Simpler, less CPU-intensive CPE Network portal Sharing Subscriber visibility in the network with NAT visibility in the network  authentication No L2 Wholesale No L3 Wholesale with overlapping No GTP Mobility with overlapping L3 mobility which is slower Complex CPE Portal on CPE No Sharing No Subscriber visibility in the network with NAT No visibility in the network ALU Recommendation

22 Architecture Options HGW/AP - Public SSID – NAT’ed (IP + NAT on AP)
L3 Solution HGW/AP – Public SSID Bridged – Non tunneled L2 Solution HGW/AP – Public SSID Bridged – Tunneled (L2oGRE OR L2VPNoGRE) HGW/AP – PMIPv6 MAG (public SSID traffic L3 tunneled to LMA. L3 Solution HGW/AP complexity Subscriber Visibility in network Traffic separation L2 Wholesale L3 Wholesale sharing Fast L2 WIFI inter-AP mobility Time & volume accounting

23 3GPP - WLAN TO 3G/4G INTERWORKING
Current 3GPP/2 standard for access to EPC over non trusted access IPSec ISSUES: IPSec/IKEv2 required on UE Battery drain effect on UE and intensive CPU processing. IPSec overhead & associated packet fragmentation on WLAN air interface Poor user experience with Latency associated with tunnel establishment for short- sessions (e.g. MMS access) Multiple tunnels one for each service HSS AAA (possibly unsecure) WLAN AP & Backhaul a priori owned by any provider SWx WLA N ePDG/PDIF PGW WLAN AP S2b: GTP IPSec: 3GPP/2 VPN ALU solution (fat-pipe model) that overcomes standard issues WLAN GW solution over trusted or un-trusted access HSS AAA (secure) WLAN AP & Backhaul SWx 802.11i WLAN AP Radius PDG/WLAN GW PGW Single tunnel / AP S2a: GTP Protected tunnel

24 SLA and QoS Management Bandwidth control Per AP
Per AP, per wholesale partner Per Mobility public WIFI user QOS mapping - 3G/4G <-> WIFI SLA-profiles created on WLAN-GW SLA-profile is a template with parameters (e.g. rates i.e. PIR/CIR) Association of subscriber to an SLA-profile is dynamic via RADIUS VSAs FC to queue mapping Per Tunnel (or per tunnel per wholesale partner) aggregate rate DSCP to FC mapping Per user policing GRE GTP Access WLAN GW CM/RG/AP GRE FC to DSCP mapping in outer header OR Copying DSCP in inner IP to outer IP DSCP to FC mapping

25 2. WLAN GW; BNG functionality enhance sub-mgt (ESM)
Legacy BRAS subscriber tunnel HSI Per Sub Per Sub Best effort Single-service (HSI) Typical BNG multi-service Voice Voice IPTV Per Sub IPTV Per-subscriber Per-service HSI Hierarchical QoS GigE 10GE Per subscriber personalization 7750 SR as BNG multi-application Per Sub RG/AP Managed Video Online Services Per-subscriber Per-service Per-application Managed VoIP To make it even easier to integrate wi-fi into the operator’s network, we are expanding our lightRadio ecosystem with the addition of several Wi-Fi Access Point vendors – many more coming A best-of-breed approach with Wi-Fi Access Point (AP) industry leaders The program is open to all Wi-Fi Access Point vendors Tunneling, encapsulation, data and control plane test Will include tests of seamless cellular to Wi-Fi operations Ensures easy operator deployment and offers an interoperable end-to-end solution Managed Gaming Voice Hierarchical QoS with Application Assurance IPTV HSI Per device Voice 7750 SR as WLAN GW multi-device IPTV Per Device Per Access Point Online Services Tab Per access point Per-device Per-service Per-application Per Device PC TV Online Services

26 GRE per HGW/AP Inter-AP Mobility 7750 SR WLAN GW PBB Bridge MS-ISA HGW/AP GRE per HGW/AP MS-ISA UE Anchored on MS-ISA MS-ISA HGW/AP When UE moves between AP, WLAN GW re-learns UE MAC on new GRE tunnel: Learning from re-authentication Learning from normal data packets Learning based on a “mobility trigger” packet from AP Subscriber is not deleted/recreated on WLAN GW Full re-authentication after re-association with new AP can be avoided if PMK-caching enabled on AP & UE, or if Wi-Fi AP implements r

27 INTER WLAN-GW REDUNDANCY & MOBILITY
preserved when subscriber moves or switches to new WLAN-GW. L2-aware NAT on old and new WLAN-GW. “Data-triggered” authentication and subscriber creation on new WLAN-GW. First data packet on new WLAN-GW to trigger RADIUS authentication based on Subscriber created after authentication. Inter-WLAN-GW Redundancy Inter-WLAN-GW Mobility WLAN-GW1 3. Access-Request <IP, MAC> 1. Health-check for WLAN-GW (based on IP Pings) 4. Data-triggered Subscriber creation WLAN-GW1 WLAN-GW2 1. UE Moves AAA AAA 2. Data switched to wards backup WLAN-GW 2. Access-Request <IP, MAC> 3. Data-triggered Subscriber creation WLAN-GW2

28 SOFT-GRE ESM USER – OPEN SSID Call Flow
UE WAP WLAN-GW AAA Captive Portal Internet PHY Attachment DHCP Discover GRE( DHCP Discover ) RADIUS Access-Request If no previous session for this UE-MAC is found, it will create a new user entry; a redirect policy will be returned in the RADIUS Access-Accept If already an authenticated session for this UE-MAC is found, no redirect policy will be returned in the RADIUS Access-Accept RADIUS Access-Accept DHCP Offer GRE( DHCP Offer) A new regular ESM subscriber context is created with HTTP redirect filter DHCP Request GRE( DHCP Request) DHCP Ack GRE( DHCP Ack) RADIUS Accounting-Start ARP Request SR OS 10 PORTAL-BASED AUTHENTIC ATION GRE( ARP Request ) ARP Reply GRE( ARP Reply ) HTTP GET( URL ) GRE( HTTP GET( URL ) ) HTTP Redirect/302( Portal ) GRE( HTTP Redirect/302( Portal ) ) HTTP Web-Based Authentication to the Captive Portal Authentication Request RADIUS CoA • Change of Authorization Authentication Success Internet Access OK!

29 SOFT GRE ESM USER – SECURED SSID – Call Flow Local Breakout
The WLAN-GW’s RADIUS proxy server will send the RADIUS message to one (or more) AAA server(s). UE WAP WLAN-GW AAA Start authentication 802.1X EAPoL-Start 802.1X EAP-Request(Id) RADIUS Access-Request(User-Name, EAP-Response, NAS-IP, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-Id=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id=AP-MAC:SSID) RADIUS Access-Request(User-Name, EAP-Response, NAS-IP, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-Id=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id=AP-MAC:SSID) 802.1X EAP-Response(Id) 802.1X EAP-Request(Challenge) RADIUS Access-Challenge(EAP-Challenge) RADIUS Access-Challenge(EAP-Challenge) AUTHENTICATION RADIUS Access-Request(User-Name, EAP-Response, NAS-IP, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-Id=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id=AP-MAC:SSID) RADIUS Access-Request(User-Name, EAP-Response, NAS-IP, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-Id=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id=AP-MAC:SSID) 802.1X EAP-Response(Id) ... ... ... ... RADIUS Access-Accept(EAP-Success, Alc-SLA-Prof, Alc-Subsc-Prof, MSMPPE-Recv-Key, MS-MPPE-Send-Key, Session-Timeout) RADIUS Access-Accept(EAP-Success, Alc-SLA-Prof, Alc-Subsc-Prof, MSMPPE-Recv-Key, MS-MPPE-Send-Key, Session-Timeout) 802.1X EAP-Success() 802.1X EAPoL-Key(ANonce) 4-WAY 802.1X EAPoL-Key(SNonce, MIC) IEEE i Four-Way Handshake 802.1X EAPoL-Key(Encrypted GTK, MIC) 802.1X EAPoL-Key(MIC) RADIUS Accounting-Start(User-Name, NAS-IP, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-ID=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id = AP-MAC:SSID) ACCT RADIUS Accounting-Response() LUDB in the cache of the RADIUS proxy server DHCP Discover(chaddr=UE-MAC) GRE( DHCP Discover(chaddr=UE-MAC) ) DHCP Offer(chaddr=UE-MAC, yip=UE-IP, Subnet-Mask, Router, Lease-Time) GRE( DHCP Offer(chaddr=UE-MAC, your-ip=UE-IP, Subnet-Mask, Router=WLAN-GW-IP, Lease-Time) DHCP DHCP Request(chaddr=UE-MAC, Requested-IP-Address=UE-IP) GRE( DHCP Request(chaddr=UE-MAC, Requested-IP-Address=UE-IP) RADIUS Accounting-Start(User-Name, NAS-ID, NAS-Port, Calling-Station-ID=UE-MAC, Called-Station-Id = AP-MAC:SSID) DHCP Ack(chaddr=UE-MAC, yip=UE-IP, Subnet-Mask, Router, Lease-Time) GRE( DHCP Ack(chaddr=UE-MAC, your-ip=UE-IP, Subnet-Mask, Router=WLAN-GW-IP, Lease-Time) RADIUS Accounting-Response()

30 WLAN-GW 3G INTERWORKING – GN Interface Wi-Fi Offload ► Call Flow
UE WAP WLAN-GW P-GW RADIUS Server RADIUS Access-Accept(EAP-Success, Alc-SLA-Prof, Alc-Subsc-Prof, Alc-Wlan-APN-Name, 3GPP-GGSN-Address, MSMPPE-Recv-Key, MS-MPPE-Send-Key, Session-Timeout) 802.1X EAP-Success() The WLAN-GW detects that RADIUS attributes have been received in the Access-Accept to setup a GTP tunnel. It will initiate GTP-C tunnel setup with: Handover Indication set to TRUE (since it is DHCP Request) PDN Address Allocation set to the IP address, requested in the DHCP Request DHCP Request(Requested-IP) GRE( DHCP Request(IP) ) GTP Create-Session-Request(IMSI, RAT-Type=WLAN, APN, HI=TRUE, PAA=DHCP-Requested-IP) GTP Create-Session-Response(Cause= “Context Not Found”) The GGSN doesn’t find a previous context and refuses the bearer setup. GTP Create-Session-Request(IMSI, RAT-Type=WLAN, APN, HI=FALSE, PAA= ) Wi-Fi OFFLOAD CONNECT SCENARIO The WLAN-GW sees that the bearer setup was not successful and tries again with: Handover Indication set to FALSE PDN Address Allocation set to GTP Create-Session-Response(Cause= “Request Accepted”, PAA=New-IP) DHCP NAK() GRE( DHCP NAK() ) Since the P-GW assigned a different IP address then what was requested by the UE, the WLAN-GW will cache this IP address for 30s and force the UE restart DHCP from scratch by sending a DHCP NAK. DHCP Discover() GRE( DHCP Discover() ) DHCP Offer(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Offer(New-IP) ) DHCP Request(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Request(New-IP) ) DHCP Ack(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Ack(New-IP) )

31 WLAN-GW 4G/LTE INTERWORKING – S2B Interface Wi-Fi Offload ► Call Flow
Rel 11.0.R2 UE WAP WLAN-GW P-GW RADIUS Server Diameter Server RADIUS Access-Accept(EAP-Success, Alc-SLA-Prof, Alc-Subsc-Prof, Alc-Wlan-APN-Name, 3GPP-GGSN-Address, MSMPPE-Recv-Key, MS-MPPE-Send-Key, Session-Timeout) 802.1X EAP-Success() The WLAN-GW detects that RADIUS attributes have been received in the Access-Accept to setup a GTP tunnel. It will initiate GTP-C tunnel setup with: Handover Indication set to TRUE (since it is DHCP Request) PDN Address Allocation set to the IP address, requested in the DHCP Request DHCP Request(Requested-IP) GRE( DHCP Request(IP) ) GTP Create-Session-Request(IMSI, RAT-Type=WLAN, APN, HI=TRUE, PAA=DHCP-Requested-IP) GTP Create-Session-Response(Cause= “Context Not Found”) The PGW doesn’t find a previous context and refuses the bearer setup. GTP Create-Session-Request(IMSI, RAT-Type=WLAN, APN, HI=FALSE, PAA= ) Wi-Fi OFFLOAD CONNECT SCENARIO The WLAN-GW sees that the bearer setup was not successful and tries again with: Handover Indication set to FALSE PDN Address Allocation set to DIAMETER AA-Request(Application=S6b, User-Name, RAT-Type=WLAN) DIAMETER AA-Answer(Application=S6b, Result-Code = DIAMETER-SUCCESS) GTP Create-Session-Response(Cause= “Request Accepted”, PAA=New-IP) DHCP NAK() GRE( DHCP NAK() ) Since the P-GW assigned a different IP address then what was requested by the UE, the WLAN-GW will cache this IP address for 30s and force the UE restart DHCP from scratch by sending a DHCP NAK. DHCP Discover() GRE( DHCP Discover() ) DHCP Offer(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Offer(New-IP) ) DHCP Request(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Request(New-IP) ) DHCP Ack(New-IP) GRE( DHCP Ack(New-IP) )

32 Research Recommendation
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33 Research Recommendation
WiFi Access Point Wireless Mesh Network Radio Location Based Services HTTP Redirect/Inline advertisements

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