2Behaviorism (Skinner, Thorndike) Based on the concept that all learning can be studied through observed behaviors.Stimulus-Response is key to learning.Stimulus: Events encountered in learning.Response: What happens in reaction to stimulus.Reinforcement: Appropriate S-R interaction is rewarded, inappropriate S-R interaction is punished.
3Behaviorism (Skinner, Thorndike) Readiness: A series of S-R can be connected if geared towards a larger goal.Practice: S-R events should take small, repeated steps to allow for reinforcement.
4Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) The “Ah-ha” theory. Higher order thinking skills.“Groupings” based on characteristics are key.Learning takes place through the discovery of the relationship between elements.Gaps in groupings leads to exploring possibilities.
5Progressivism (Dewey) Education is a lifetime event. It should not be viewed as a preparation for life.Schooling should be related to the life of the student.Students should explore problem resolution situations (projects). Subject matter should be presented to help resolve problem.The relationships in the classroom should be of working together to complete projects.
6Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) Cognitive structure (mind and intelligence) pass through biological developmental stages.Sensorimotor (0-2 years): Motor actionsPreoperation (3-7): Intuitive, reactionalConcrete operational (8-11): logical with concrete referents.Formal operations (12-15): Movement to abstractions
7Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) Cognitive structures change through adaptation:Assimilation: interpretations of events through present cognitive structuresAccommodation: change to cognitive structure to explain environment.
8Constructivism (Bruner) Learning is an active process through which the learner connects new information to previously learned information.Discovery basedConnect to students’ interestsSpiral based structure to teaching (provides students the opportunity to add to schema)
9Social Development (Vygotsky) Learning take place through social interaction.Learning progresses through stages that expose students to knowledge just beyond present state. (ZPD)Requires assistance from someone more advanced in this area.Students use socially constructed tools (language, gestures, etc.) to negotiate meaning.
10LANGUAGE www.ucalgary.ca/~mueller/P365/language.ppt Language is fundamental to thinking and cognition, even isomorphic with cognitive processes in North American psychology
11Explanations of language learning Psycho-linguists, e.g., Chomsky“Language Acquisition Device” innate“preparedness”?Psychologists, e.g., SkinnerReinforcementSudden? Full strength? Creative?Pavlov’s “second signal system”Cognitive science
12Linguistic relativism? Sapir - Whorf hypothesis:Language habits predispose interpretation;“cold” means differently in Calgary compared to Cancun?Post-modernism …. Can anyone understand anyone else?
13Linguistic universality? For example, color words actually do not proliferate without number, just about a dozen common ones across cultures“Eskimos” do not have hundreds of words for “snow”
14Gender differences? Men: language is for Women: language is for NegotiationPreserving independenceAvoiding failureWomen: language is forEstablishing connectionsEstablishing support & confirmationreaching consensus
15Linguistic “Determinism” -- not Linguistic “relativism” does not imply “determinism” -- can differences in thinking overcome any absent words (thoughts and language not one and same)Even relativism overstated, e.g., note the “cooperative principle” (Grice) -- presumed to be seeking mutual understanding (but also Verbal Self Defense!
16How is language acquired? Innate processes?Experience, learning?Something else?Several things?
17Theories of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Adapted from Ellis, R. (1986) “Understanding Second Language Acquisition
18Acculturation Model (J. Schumann) SLA is one aspect of acculturationThe degree of acculturation will control the degree of SLASocial distanceFactors which interact between the native and target groups.Psychological distanceAffective factors which impact on the individual learner.
19Social Distance Bad Learning Good Learning One group has higher status than otherTarget group attempt to limit assimilationL2 group maintains own social sphereLarger, cohesive L2 groupCultures come into conflictOne or both groups have negative feelings for other groupL2 use of target language is temporaryGood LearningL1 & L2 groups are of equal statusBoth groups hope for learner to assimilate in target groupBoth groups believe that L2 group shares social sphereSmall, non-cohesive L2 groupL2’s culture is compatible with target groupBoth groups have positive attitudes for other groupL2 group will be in target language for extended time period
20Psychological Distance Language shockfear, doubt, and confusion when using target languageCulture shockfear, stress, disorientation due to negotiating new cultureMotivationEgo boundariesHow much risk they are willing to take
21Pidginization Hypothesis Interlanguage development (the individual languages developed by those in the early stages of SLA) becomes fossilized when social & psychological distances are great.These distances limit inputThe use of language remains at the communicative stageCommunicative function: transmission of referential (basic) informationIntegrative function: language that marks a person as member of groupExpressive function: language that displays “linguistic virtuosity”
22Accommodation Theory (H. Giles) Similar to Acculturation Theory in that both attempt to explain how group relations impact SLAAcculturation: Actual distance between groupsAccommodation: Perceived distance between groupsSocial distances are in constant negotiation
23Motivation is primary factor in SLA It is a reflex of how learners define themselves in ethnic termsFactors that impact identityIdentification with specific “ingroup” (native)Inter-ethnic comparisons: One group is better than otherPerception of ethno-linguistic vitalityPerception of ingroup boundaries: hard boundaries (separation from other group), soft boundaries (blending of language and culture)Identification and status with ingroup social categories: occupation, religion, etc.
24Ethnic speech markers are used to show relationships in particular settings Upward Convergence: User is positively motivated towards outgroup. Attempts to limit speech markersDownward divergence: User is negatively motivated towards outgroup, accentuates speech markers.
25Variable Competence Model (R. Ellis) The way a language is learned is a reflection of how it is used.Product: continuum of discourse types ranging from entirely planned to entirely unplannedProcess: Distinction between linguistic knowledge (rules) and the ability to use this knowledge (appropriate use of language as well as correct use)
26Language acquisition is the result of making sense of language events Language develops as user applies the knowledge of language to contextual situationsVariable competence: user possesses a heterogeneous rule systemVariable application of procedures: user applies a variety or procedures to confirm language knowledgeLanguage acquisition is the result of making sense of language events
27Language development occurs: There is a single knowledge store containing the variable rules for language use (automatic & analyzed)The learner has a capacity for language use with both primary (unplanned & unanalyzed) and secondary (planned & analyzed) discourse processesL2 performance is variable based on use of the processes mentioned aboveLanguage development occurs:acquisition of new L2 rules through participation discourse eventsactivation of L2 rules so they become part of unplanned discourse
28Variable Competence Model of SLA (R. Ellis) AcquisitionAcquisitionautomaticUnplanned discoursePlanned discourseL2 KnowledgeUseUseanalyticprimaryprocessessecondaryprocesses
29Motivation Motivation affects level of language acquisition Integrative Motivation: occurs when person learning a second language does so in order to be identified with or become part of target group.Instrumental Motivation: occurs when person learning second language see it as a tool for personal or professional progress.Those with Integrative Motivation tend to acquire second language better.
31Learning vs. Acquisition (1) Second language is developed through formal study of structureLanguage learned through formal instructionLanguage learning occurs at conscious levelSecond language follows a pattern similar to first languageLanguage is naturally acquired.Language acquisition occurs at subconscious level
32Learning vs. Acquisition (2) Language learning develops explicit knowledge of languageFormal instruction of language structure needed to provide key informationLanguage acquisition develops implicit understanding of language structureFormal teaching of language structure does not improve acquisition
33Second language develops in a natural order Efforts to teach forms and structures for which students are not ready will not improve acquisitionGrammar-based approaches do not workAllow time to development to take place
34Input HypothesisLanguage acquisition occurs through interaction just beyond present abilityComprehensible input (I+1) occurs when contextual clues provide for language clues
35Affective Filter Input is effected by a variety of affective events. Lowering stress increase probability of acquisition
36Monitor HypothesisGrammar learning will appear through the use of a monitorMonitor examines outputIt takes time to develop
37Language provides information. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)Contrary to popular belief, information learned in one language is available in the second.
38What this means:Information provided in one language becomes available in the other, once second language development reaches that point.
39Different types of language. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)Common, everyday language needed to function socially.Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)Language needed in academic environment.
40Different types of language. Problems arise when BICS is considered academically proficient.Students are moved out of programs without needed support.Students are judged as being intellectually inferior, which can be internalized by the student.
41Threshold HypothesisThere is a dynamic relationship between languages and cognitive development in bilingual students.The better developed both languages are the better the probability of positive cognitive developmentStudents with limited native language development are more likely to suffer negative cognitive development
42Threshold Hypothesis Second Threshold First Threshold Top Floor: Balanced BilingualsChildren have age-appropriate ability in both languagesand positive cognitive advantage.Second ThresholdMiddle Floor: Less Balanced BilingualsChildren have age-appropriate ability in one language,not both. No cognitive advantage or disadvantage.First ThresholdLower Floor: Limited BilingualsChildren have low levels of ability in both languagesand probable cognitive disadvantage.
43Provide Instruction in a Demanding, yet Contextualized Format.