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Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Which model is most effective? Ashley Martin ED 702.22 Spring 2011 Final Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Which model is most effective? Ashley Martin ED 702.22 Spring 2011 Final Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Closing the Literacy Gap for ELLs Which model is most effective? Ashley Martin ED Spring 2011 Final Presentation ¡Hola! Hello!

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Statement of Problem - 3 Review of Literature - 4 Statement of Hypothesis - 5 Participants/Instruments - 6 Experimental Design/Threats to Validity - 7 Procedure - 8 Results Discussion/Implications - 14 References - 15

3  To instruct first-grade ELLs at PSX, the school has implemented a side-by-side dual-language setting that separates L1 and L2 literacy development by classroom. For Spanish- speaking students (L1), English proficiency (L2) is below expected levels according to ECLAS-2 results and Fountas & Pinnell reading levels. Statement of Problem

4 Research confirms significance of native language maintenance as predictor of future L2 proficiency as well as a powerful tool to assist in the transfer of literacy knowledge from one language to the next. (Carlo et al., 2004; Culatta, Reese & Setzer, 2006; Lee & Schallert, 1997; Potowski, 2004; Quesada, 2007; Vaughn et al., 2006). Research confirms English-only immersion models as most effective. – (Garcia, E., 2007; Helmsley, Holm & Dodd, 2006; Leung et al., 2010; Rossell & Baker, 1996; Winsler et al., 2006) States with recent policy changes: California, Arizona, Georgia, and Massachusetts. The Great Debate Native Language Maintenance or English Immersion

5 HR¹: Use of bilingual small-group literacy instruction in English Classroom over an eight-week period will increase L2 proficiency of Spanish-speaking ELLs in the dual-language program (Fountas & Pinnell) HR²: Bilingual small-group literacy instruction in English Classroom A will yield a greater literacy improvement for students compared to those instructed in English Classroom B. Statement of Hypothesis

6 Participants - 14 students from P.S. X in Brooklyn, all with L1 Spanish and L2 English in a Dual Language Program Pre and Post Tests – Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (K-2) Level G Nonfiction - “Bubbles” By Christina Rodriguez Student Surveys – Self-Attitudes, Behaviors, Likes and Dislikes Parent Surveys – Demographics, Attitudes, Duration Participants and Instruments HondurasDominican Rep. Mexico El Salvador Guatemala

7 RESEARCH DESIGN and THREATS TO VALIDITY Research Design: Quasi-Experimental Design – Nonequivalent Control Group Design – Symbolic Design: O X 1 O O X 2 O Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity History Maturation Testing/ Pre-Test Sensitization Instrumentation Mortality Differential Selection of Subjects o Ecological: Generalizable Conditions o Pre-test Treatment o Experimenter Effects o Specificity of Variables o Reactive Arrangements/ Participants Effects o Compensatory Rivalry o Placebo Effect – Parent Surveys

8 Procedure Pretest administration Small group literacy instruction Bi-weekly/tri-weekly depending on existing dual language rotation calendar. Group 1 Treatment Bilingual instruction using the following strategies: Preview - View - Review Cognate Analysis/Translation to clarify Word Study Activities

9 Pretest/Posttest Results

10 Group 1: Spanish/English Correlation A = 1 B = 2 C = 3 D= 4 E= 5 F = 6 G = 7 H = 8 I = 9 J = 10 K = 11 Group 1 Spanish/English Comparison.903rxy

11 Group 2: Spanish/English Correlation A = 1 B = 2 C = 3 D= 4 E= 5 F = 6 G = 7 H = 8 I = 9 J = 10 K = 11 Group 2 Spanish/English Comparison.710rxy

12 Student and Parent Surveys.698rxy 4 It is important for my child to continue to speak Spanish while learning English. Es importante para mi hijo/a a continuar hablando espa ñ ol mientras esta aprendiendo ingles. Strongly DisagreeDisagreeAgreeStrongly Agree 1234 While no correlation could be found for either group, 92.8% of all responses were favorable (3 or 4)

13 Data Dispersion / Grade Level Expectancies σ = 14.4 σ = 3.8

14 Discussion / Implications L1 maintenance more successful than English immersion programs. (Carlo et al., 2004; Culatta, Reese & Setzer, 2006; Lee & Schallert, 1997; Potowski, 2004; Quesada, 2007; Vaughn et al., 2006). Parent support of native language maintenance Polarized nature of debate and research suggests need for more research, especially in light of recent policy changes. Bilingual treatment L2 only

15 References Carlo, M.S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D.,... White, C. E. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms [Electronic Version]. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2) Combs, M. C., Evans, C., Fletcher, T., Parra, E., & Jim � nez, A. (2005). Bilingualism for the children : Implementing a dual-language program in an English-only state. Educational Policy, 19, doi: / Culatta, B., Reese, M., & Setzer, L. (2006). Early literacy instruction in a dual-language (Spanish-English) kindergarten. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 27(2), doi: / Cummins, J. (1983). Bilingualism and special education: Programs and pedagogical issues. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6(4), Autumn, Duran, L, Roseth, C. J., & Hoffman, P. (2010). An experimental study comparing English-only and transitional bilingual education on Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ early literacy development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), doi: /j.ecresq Freeman, R. (2000). Contextual challenges to dual-language education: A case study of a developing middle school program [Electronic Version]. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 31(2), Garcia, E. (2007). Education comes in diverse shapes and forms for U.S. bilinguals. In J, Noel, (Ed.), Multicultural Education, 2 nd ed New York: McGraw Hill. Garcia, O. (2008). Bilingual education in the 21 st century. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell. Garcia, O. (2005). Positioning heritage languages in the United States [Electronic Version]. The Modern Language Journal, 89(4), Helmsley, G., Holm, A., & Dodd, B. (2006). Diverse but not different: The lexical skills of two primary age bilingual groups in comparison to monolingual peers. International Journal of Bilingualism,10(4) doi: / Holloway, L. (2000, October 17). Immersion promoted as alternative to bilingual instruction. The New York Times. Retrieved from Hornberger, N. H. (1998). Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant and international perspectives [Electronic Version]. Language in Society, 27(4), Johnson, D. C. (2010). The relationship between applied linguistic research and language policy for bilingual education [Electronic Version]. Applied Linguistics, 31(1),

16 References (2) Lee, J., & Schallert, D. L. (1997). The relative contribution of L2 language proficiency and L1 reading ability to L2 reading performance: A test of the threshold hypothesis in an EFL context [Electronic version]. TESOL Quarterly, Leung, C. B., Silverman, R., Nandakumar, R., Qian, X., & Hines, S. (2010). A comparison of difficulty levels of vocabulary in first grade basal readers for preschool dual language learners and monolingual English learners [Electronic Version]. American Education Research Journal. doi: / Palmer, D. (2010). Race, power, and equity in a multiethnic urban elementary school with a dual-language “ strand ” program [Electronic Version]. Anthropology and Education Quaterly, 4(1), Potowski, K. (2004). Student Spanish use and investment in a dual language immersion classroom: Implications for second language acquisition and heritage language maintenance. The Modern Language Journal, 88(1), Spring, Quesada, P. (2007). A comparative study of the writing achievement of fourth grade English language learners in a dual-language bilingual program and a transitional bilingual program in the lower Rio Grande Valley (Texas) [Electronic Version]. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 68(4-A), Ravitch, D. (1997, September 5). First teach them English. The New York Times. Retrieved from: Rossell, C. (2002). Dismantling bilingual education implementing English immersion: The California initiative. Public Policy Inst. of California, San Francisco. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED Rossell, C. & Baker, K. (1996). The educational effectiveness of bilingual education [Electronic Version]. Research in the Teaching of English, 30(1), Slavin, E., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners. Review of Educational Research, 75(2). Summer, doi: / Tong, V., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B., Mathes, P., & Kwok, O. M. (2008). Accelerating early academia oral English development in transitional bilingual and structure English immersion programs. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), doi: / Vaugh, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Mathes, P. G., Cirino, P. T., Carlson, C. D., Pollard-Durodola, S. D.,... Francis, D. J. (2006). Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(1), doi: / Winsler, A., Diaz, R., Espinoza, L., Rodriguez, J. (1999). When learning a second language does not mean losing the first: Bilingual language development in low-income, Spanish-speaking children attending bilingual preschool [Electronic version]. Child Development, 70(2)

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