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| faculteit der letteren Observing speech acts in hospitality situations. The role of the linguistic form 1 Leanne Schreurs 12th International Columbia.

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Presentation on theme: "| faculteit der letteren Observing speech acts in hospitality situations. The role of the linguistic form 1 Leanne Schreurs 12th International Columbia."— Presentation transcript:

1 | faculteit der letteren Observing speech acts in hospitality situations. The role of the linguistic form 1 Leanne Schreurs 12th International Columbia School Conference on the Interaction of Linguistic Form and Meaning with Human Behavior Columbia University February 14-16, 2015

2 | faculteit der letteren “What is hospitality?” Saxion Hospitality Business School (the Netherlands):  Hotel & Tourism Management. Methods of data collection and analysis need to be broadened (cf. Lashley & Morrison 2000; Robinson & Lynch 2007).  The lack of linguistic research on how experiences of hospitality are shaped is unfortunate, as the experience of hospitality relies heavily on verbal social interactions (Robinson & Lynch 2007). An analysis of the linguistic forms related to hospitality. 2

3 | faculteit der letteren Qualitative analysis of a hospitality situation (1)—¡Ah de la casa! —grita en cuanto arrima. —Buenos días, señor Don José María —contesta Don Rufo saliendo al corredor, muy hospitalario y atento—. ¿Por qué no se desmonta y se cuela? —Con mucho gusto, si lo permite el amigo. ‘—Hi there! —he screams, while arriving [at the house]. —Good morning, Mr Sir José María —answers Sir Rufo while coming to the corridor, very hospitable and polite—. Why don’t you get off [the horse] and come in? —With pleasure, if my friend allows me to do so.’ (Carrasquilla 1974 [1928]: 158) 3

4 | faculteit der letteren Speech acts and linguistic forms Speech acts (Searle 1969): 1.To greet → Buenos días, señor Don José María. ‘Good morning, Mr Sir José María.’  Greeting, wishing the other person a good day;  Formal address terms;  Double proper name. 2.To invite → ¿Por qué no se desmonta y se cuela? ‘Why don’t you get off [the horse] and come in?’  Interrogative sentence;  Negation;  Verb conjugations in 3rd person singular;  Indicative mood. 4

5 | faculteit der letteren Invitation speech acts: the imperative Two linguistic structures to indicate invitations: 1.Imperative, in two forms: a.informal, 2nd person singular/plural, indicative mood, e.g., pasa ‘come in’ b.formal, 3rd person singular/plural, subjunctive mood, e.g., pase (usted) ‘please come in’ Imperative forms may also convey commands or requests. The imperative as an invitation: repetition of the verb form, e.g., fuma, fuma ‘of course you may smoke’ (Matte Bon 1995 [1992]: 94). The degree of formality is not necessarily related to a certain degree of hospitality, but it seems that the formal construction has a higher connotation with hospitality than the informal one. 5

6 | faculteit der letteren Invitation speech acts: question + negation 2.Question as a proposal: a.negation b.indicative mood Invitational structure to propose an activity to the interlocutor (Matte Bon 1995 [1992]: 319). The hospitality situation indicates that:  hospitality may be related to different linguistic systems interacting with the context;  greetings and invitations are speech acts that may be characteristic to hospitality situations;  the linguistic forms that may intervene in polite hospitality situations possibly are formal address terms, verb mood and interrogative structures with a negation. 6

7 | faculteit der letteren Quantitative analysis Distribution analysis of scene types and linguistic forms  to observe general tendencies Results restricted to La Marquesa de Yolombó (The Marchioness of Yolombó; Carrasquilla 1974 [1928])  they cannot be generalized to hospitality situations  they serve to elaborate upon the hypothesis that linguistic forms may function as hints (Diver 1975) to hospitality. 7

8 | faculteit der letteren Quantitative analysis: relationships and situations Table 1. Types of social relationships 8 RelativesNon-relatives conjugal partnersacquaintances grandparent <> grandchildboss <> servant parent <> child employer <> employee parent in law <> child in lawfriends parents in law godparent <> godchild siblingsgodparents siblings in lawinhabitants parent's sibling <> sibling's biological offspringmayor <> inhabitant neighbours strangers ConflictiveNon-conflictive discussionsencounters quarrels pleasant conversations Table 2. Types of situations Linguistic forms:  forms of address  verb mood

9 | faculteit der letteren Proposition 1 Given the expectation that hospitality situations are more likely to occur among non-relatives than among relatives, it can also be expected that conflictive situations are more likely to occur among relatives than among non-relatives. (2)—¡Déjate de pendejadas, que ya no eres ninguna niña de teta! Pero, si no lo entiendes, oye: […] aquí no debo traer más mujer que la legítima; y yo no puedo dormir solo porque me da mucho frío. —¿Asina es la cosa, su Merced? Pues, entonces no se ponga a esperar un mes: cuando el palomito arrastra el ala, hay que buscarle su palomita, porque persigue las gallinas. —¡Perra irrespetuosa! ¡Te vas de aquí agora mesmo! ‘—Don’t be silly, you’re not a little child anymore! But, if you don’t understand, listen: […] I should not bring here any other woman than the legitimate one; and I can’t sleep alone because I get cold. —That’s how it is, your Mercy? So, then don’t wait a month: when the pigeon drags his wings, one must look for his mate, because otherwise he’ll chase other hens. —Disrespectful brat! Leave immediately!’ (C. 1974 [1928]: 166-167) 9

10 | faculteit der letteren Prop.1: relationships in relation to situations 10 Table 3. Distribution of social relationships across situations X 2 : 356,8 p<0,001 Conflict situations Non-conflict situationsTotal Relatives354466820 77%28%39% Non-relatives10811871295 23%72%61% Total46216532115 100%

11 | faculteit der letteren Proposition 2  The expectation is that V-forms are more likely to occur in hospitality situations, and therefore among non-relatives, then with relatives, who will show a relative preference for T-forms. 11 TV Tú73 Vos12 Usted 137 Usía 11 Su merced 140 Vuestra excelencia 1 Total N85289 Table 4. Classification of the forms of address

12 | faculteit der letteren Prop.2: forms of address in relation to relationships 12 Table 5. Distribution of forms of address across relationships X 2 : 5,6 p<0,05RelativesNon-relativesTotal V118171289 72%82%77% T473885 28%18%23% Total165209374 100%

13 | faculteit der letteren Proposition 3 If V-forms are related to hospitality situations and these situations are likely to occur in non-conflictive situations, we expect to see a relative preference of V-forms in non-conflictive situations, as opposed to T-forms for conflictive situations. (3) —¿Qué es lo que dice, Naciancena? —estalla Doña Antonina—. Hágame el favor de repetir, porque no le entiendo. —¡Eh, Antoninita! ¡Se viene a hacer de las nuevas, usted, que no les tapa nada! […] —¡La materia corrompida la tendrés vos y toda tu ralea, zamba atrevida y lengüilarga! ‘—What are you (V) saying, Naciancena? —Mrs Antonina bursts out —. Please, do (V) me the favor of repeating, because I don’t understand you (V). —Hey, Antoninita! You’re (V) of the new kind, you (V) don’t cover up anything from them! […] —You (T) and all your (T) kind of people are the corrupted dirty ones, insolent gossip half-breed!’ (C. 1974 [1928]: 379) 13

14 | faculteit der letteren Prop.3: forms of address in relation to situations 14 Table 6. Distribution of forms of address across situations X 2 : 11,7 p<0,001 Conflict situations Non-conflict situationsTotal V65224289 65%82%77% T355085 35%18%23% Total100274374 100%

15 | faculteit der letteren Proposition 4 If hospitality is more related to non-relatives, and the subjunctive mood indicates the relevance of an alternative (De Jonge 2004, Dreer 2007), we should observe a relative preference for the use of subjunctive by non-relatives and indicative by relatives. (4)—Algo semejante me pasa con su sobrino. Conózcalo o no, voy a contar todas sus fechorías y las de su abuelo Moreno. Ya él me dio permiso. —¡Valiente gracia! Hasta premio le da. Pero vea una cosa, Orellana: yo me atrevo a suplicarle que cuente los milagros sin nombrar los santos. —Con mucho gusto, Marquesa. Basta con que usted me lo recomiende. ‘—Something similar happens to me with regard to your nephew. It doesn’t matter if you know him or not, I’m going to tell all his misdeeds and that of his grandfather Moreno. He already gave me permission. —How funny! He will even reward you for that with a price. But please see (S), Orellana: I dare to beg you to tell (S) the miracles without revealing the names of the saints. —With pleasure, Marchioness. It is enough that you recommend (S) me to do so.’ (C. 1974 [1928]: 526-527) 15

16 | faculteit der letteren Prop.4: verb mood in relation to relationships 16 Table 7. Distribution of verb mood across social relationships X 2 : 7,7 p<0,01RelativesNon-relativesTotal Indicative435548983 70%63,5%66% Subjunctive183315498 30%36,5%34% Total6188631481 100%

17 | faculteit der letteren Proposition 5 The expectation is that there is a preference for the subjunctive mood in non-conflict situations, since both would be the place for hospitality situations to occur. 17 X 2 : 0,9 p<0,4Conflict situations Non-conflict situationsTotal Indicative mood223760983 64%67%66% Subjunctive mood124374498 36%33%34% Total34711341481 100% Table 8. Distribution of verb mood across situations

18 | faculteit der letteren Conclusion Preliminary results of the analysis of linguistic forms in relation to hospitality.  Qualitative analysis: address terms, verb mood and interrogative structures with a negation are linguistic forms that may intervene in hospitality situations.  Quantitative analysis: hospitality situations are most commonly associated with non-relatives and non-conflict situations; non-relatives and non-conflict situations have a preference for V- forms over T-forms; non-relatives show a relative preference for the subjunctive mood; non- conflict situations do not show a preference for the subjunctive mood. Linguistic forms 1.forms of address 2.verb mood ‼ work-in-progress 3.questions 4.negation Suggestions for other variables and for the experiment? 18

19 | faculteit der letteren References Brown, Roger and Albert Gilman. 1960. “The Pronouns of Power and Solidarity.” In: Sebeok, Thomas A. (ed.). Style in Language. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 253-276. Carrasquilla, Tomás. 1974 [1928]. La Marquesa de Yolombó, edited by Kurt L. Levy. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. De Jonge, Bob. 2004. “The Relevance of Relevance in Linguistic Analysis: The Case of Spanish Subjunctive Mood.” In: Contini-Morava, Ellen, Robert S. Kirsner, and Betsy Rodríguez Bachiller (eds.). Cognitive and Communicative Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Amsterdam, John Benjamins: 205-218. Diver, William. 1975. “Introduction.” In: CUWPL 2, pp. 1-20. Dreer, Igor. 2007. Expressing the same by the different: The Subjunctive vs the Indicative in French. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Lashley, Conrad, Paul Lynch, and Alison J. Morrison. 2007. Hospitality: A Social Lens. Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier. Matte Bon, Francisco and Iñigo Sánchez Paños. 1995 [1992]. Gramática Comunicativa del Español ; T. 1: De la Lengua a la Idea. - T. 2: De la Idea a la Lengua. Madrid: Edelsa. Robinson, Martha G. and Paul A. Lynch. 2007. “Hospitality through Poetry: Control, Fake Solidarity, and Breakdown.” International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 1 (3): 237-246. Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 19

20 | faculteit der letteren Frequencies Form of addressN% V28977 T8523 Total374100 20 Verb moodN% Indicative78261 Subjunctive49839 Total1280100 Speech situationsN% Conflict situation 46222 Non-conflict situation 165378 Total2115100 Social relationshipsN% Relatives82039 Non-relatives129861 Total2118100 Tabel 1. Frequency of Forms of address Tabel 2. Frequency of Verb mood Tabel 3. Frequency of Speech situations Tabel 4. Frequency of Social relationships

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