Presentation on theme: "Sources of unwillingness to communicate in EFL language classrooms."— Presentation transcript:
Sources of unwillingness to communicate in EFL language classrooms
This study investigated sources of learners’ unwillingness to communicate in EFL language classrooms. A group of 60 Iranian EFL learners participated cooperatively and voluntarily in different phases of the study. By giving them questionnaires, the most influential factors and sources of unwillingness to communicate in classrooms were determined. Proficiency and anxiety were singled out as the most important reasons for unwillingness to communicate. In addition, the other factors such as the type of feedback they received, situational variables and topic familiarity were also mentioned as influential factors.
The willingness to communicate (WTC) can be conceptualized as a readiness to speak in the L2 at a particular moment with a specific person, and as such, is the final psychological step to the initiation of L2 communication (MacIntyre, 2007). WTC can be conceptualized to reflect individual differences in a stable disposition toward communication, or vary from situation to situation, and even moment to moment (MacIntyre et al., 1998; Saint Le´ger and Storch, 2009). Although many of the variables that interact to predict L2 communication (see Do¨rnyei, 2005) change with the time frame being studied, in this study we are adopting a trait-like approach, similar to McCroskey’s original work with native language communication (see McCroskey and Richmond, 1991).
METHODOLOGY The participants of this study are Iranian EFL high school learners of English at private institutes. 60 students were chosen as representatives of a larger population of nearly 500 students. Sex is not taken into accounts; for this there are both sexes among the samples.
Two questionnaires were distributed among 150 EFL students. Initially, open-ended Questions were given to students in order to express their reasons for unwillingness to communicate in classrooms in a relax atmosphere. Then, given answers and reasons were categorized from the most frequent and common one to the least. After that, based on those responses and reasons a close-ended one was distributed among them. Beside the reasons set forth by the participants, so many other factors referred to the topic were also added to the closed-questionnaire.
Data analysis To show any normal or abnormal results of the data Kolmogrov smear Nvf was used. Because the Sig = 0.846 α = 0.05 is greater than the normal, the results of the data analysis are accepted and we can use parametric tests. The correlation between the dependent variable (Unwillingness to communicate in Language classrooms) and the independent variables (factor 6) was calculated and it was equal to 0.982, which indicates a strong relation between the dependent variable and six independent variables. All six factors had a Sig = 0.000 α = 0.05 which is smaller than critical, thus all six factors were significant. According to the results, the last factor has had most effect on the dependent variable. Thereafter the first and fourth factor in the last category had crucial effects on the dependent variable
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS As it was shown in the data analysis, all 6 factors - proficiency, lack of confidence, feedback, topic familiarity, personal affect and situational variables - have had important roles in students’ unwillingness to communicate in classroom. Proficiency which is defined as knowledge of language has had a greater effect. The other factors have had important effects on students’ unwillingness to communicate, however, anxiety and personal affect can be considered as the most important ones in students’ unwillingness to communicate in EFL classrooms.