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LESLLA Koeln, Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "LESLLA Koeln, Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning."— Presentation transcript:

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2 LESLLA Koeln, Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

3 LESLLA in Koeln Not just about learning English Although expectations persist that everyone speak English.. Or

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5 Framing Considerations

6 Presentation Informed by Teacher training on US-Mexico border National studies on ESL - L1 use in L2 Dpt of Labor – Language and Literacy in US and Mexico Technical Assistance on dual language program designs Project on mediated self-access to technology National Academy of Sciences – Adult Lit and Cognition Life and work consists of moving across and between languages

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8 Associations and Connections Cognitive sciences shows that the brain learns through associations of ideas and concepts previously learned

9 Brain Makes Assocations Between Prior knowledge and current knowledge Multiple sources of input (text, visual, auditory) Different kinds of texts Previous experiences and new experiences Oral and written language L1 and L2 systems These connections deepen learning and information retrieval becomes more effective

10 Connecting Fish Stories Teacher can preview anectode in L1 or in the target language

11 A Typical Conversation with my Mom

12 Using L1 to Facilitate Comprehension Teacher offers preview of video in L1 Students predict what words they might hear (L1 and L2) Teacher focuses students on a few key phrases (I don’t like fish; it’s good for you) – T allows student to translate Students watch and listen – focus on key words of the video Students work in pairs to retell story – using stick figures as part of a story board. Students may use L1 as they discuss the story – but try to recreate dialogue in English Teachers work with students to recreate story in English, using story boards (Language Experience)

13 Research in Cognition and L1/L2

14 Both L1 and L2 systems are active in the brain – L2 learners are mental jugglers – There is no switching off L1 – Translation continues even with advanced proficiency Cummins: Underlying Common Proficiency – Linguistic knowledge from L1 system transfers to L2 – Both as interference and as source of knowledge – “The more you know, the more you know” See references

15 The What Works Study Examined “learning opportunities” and instructional practices that promote English acquisition for LESLLA learners (Condelli and Wrigley, 2009) Showed that the “judicious” use of the native language positively influences second language development (ESL) of LESLLA learners Found that learners in programs where L1 was used judiciously had higher English scores than learners in classes where only English was used

16 Does Multi-lingualism Make You Smarter? Bilingual children score higher on cognitive tests – Able to ignore irrelevant information – Better able to switch between tasks Bilingualism protects against dementia (less precipitous decline on tasks that demand “executive function”) - Judith Kroll – see references

17 Socio-Political Contexts

18 Language Attitudes and Ideologies Most of the world operates in bi-or multi-lingual contexts Where mono-linguals predominate –Encouragment and use of L1 issue becomes emotional and contentious – Fear of separatism – L2 or L1 – seen as a zero sum game – Lack of understanding of SLA: Why can’t they just … – Native languages are commonly used in L2 learning by students or bilingual teachers – and definitely by the brain Skeleton in the closet

19 Stealth Teaching

20 Assumptions about Language

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22 Assumption that L2 Literacy is the Only Literacy that Counts

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24 Resurgence

25 Heritage Languages Resurgence of Catalan and Basque Celtic languages – Wales – public notices and such

26 Lost in Translation

27 Increased Attention to L1 and L2 Studies in the bilingual brain (imaging) Understanding of the economic value – Higher earnings L2 literacy not the only literacy that counts Professionalism in Bilingual Contexts – Health care workers – Mechanics – Construction

28 Rationale

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31 Practical Applications

32 The Dilemma

33 Bilingual Aides Refugee Programs in Australia Women’s Refugee Alliance Intake and Assessment Someone who looks like me Focus Groups and Discussions Issue of voice Bilingual Aides as Liaisons and Advocates

34 L1 in L2 Classroom

35 Multiple Ways of Using L1 Welcoming Team Making L1 and L2 interaction explicit – Contrastive analysis of writing systems Print awareness and curiosity – Signs, labels Peer to peer interaction – Retelling – Problem Solving Scenarios – L1 coaching (names, holidays, recognition)

36 Problem-solving Scenarios Example: The Rich Immigrant The following slide presentation can be used with or without text or sound. We recommend the teacher preview the story orally in L1 or L2 and then tell the story using the slides without print to start. Students then retell the story based on the slides. On the second round, the class reads the story together. Students may also listen to the story independently using the audio slides.

37 The Rich Immigrant Story without text Story with text Story without text with narration Story with text and narration Return to Beginning

38 The Rich Immigrant WITHOUT TEXT Return to Beginning

39 Return to Beginning

40 Return to Beginning

41 Return to Beginning

42 Return to Beginning

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50 Return to Beginning

51 The Rich Immigrant WITH TEXT Return to Beginning

52 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia. Return to Beginning

53 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities. Return to Beginning

54 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work. Return to Beginning

55 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity. Return to Beginning

56 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes. Return to Beginning

57 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job. Return to Beginning

58 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village. Return to Beginning

59 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents. Return to Beginning

60 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us." Return to Beginning

61 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat. Return to Beginning

62 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents. Return to Beginning

63 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do. Return to Beginning

64 The Rich Immigrant WITHOUT TEXT | WITH NARRATION Return to Beginning

65 Return to Beginning

66 Return to Beginning

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70 Return to Beginning

71 Return to Beginning

72 Return to Beginning

73 Return to Beginning

74 Return to Beginning

75 Return to Beginning

76 Return to Beginning

77 The Rich Immigrant WITH TEXT | WITH NARRATION Return to Beginning

78 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.

79 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.

80 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.

81 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity. Return to Beginning

82 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes. Return to Beginning

83 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job. Return to Beginning

84 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village. Return to Beginning

85 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents. Return to Beginning

86 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us." Return to Beginning

87 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat. Return to Beginning

88 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents. Return to Beginning

89 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do. Return to Beginning

90 L1 in Bilingual Contexts

91 Programmatic Strategy Build dual language competence – Low Literate adults – Spanish Medical Terminology plus English for Heatlh – IT – Green construction – Electricians – Pathway to Certificate

92 Validating Experience Lila Downs: Medley: Pastures of Plenty/This Land is Your Land Amazon Sample

93 Teachers and Students Share the Same Language

94 Using L1 Purposefully, Judiciously, Strategically Preview in L1 to build schema Review to focus on what’s been learned Minimize continuous translation – slow down – simplify language – – say it a nother way - Act it out – draw it get students on your side (shrimp) Allow students to communicate non-verbally

95 Resources for Teachers

96 Literacywork.com

97 Challenge for LESLLA Acknowledge and break down attitudinal barriers Further explore L1 in L2 Examine and document Create student profiles

98 Further Explore L1 in L2 Contexts Explore the difference that teaching and learning in the native language can make – In bilingual learning contexts Teachers and learners share the same language Learners share a common language – In multilingual contexts Some students share the same language The teacher and the students do not share a common language Develop teaching practices and learning strategies that take advantage of the L1 and L2 connections that the bilingual brain makes

99 What Happens When We Talk about L1? We might as well be wearing ear rings that say …..

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101 References: Condelli, L. and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2009) What Works Study: Instruction, Literacy and language learning for Adult ESL Literacy Students. In S. Reder and J. Bynner (Eds.).Tracking Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills: Findings from Longitudinal Research. London & New York: Routledge. Cummins, J (2001) Empowering Language Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Publishing Group. Vol. 71, Number 4/Winter 2001 Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22. Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. –

102 References (2) Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22. Lukes, M.M. (2009). ‘We thought they had forgotten us’: Research, policy, and practice in the education of Latino immigrant adults. Journal of Latinos and Education, 8, 2, K. Rivera & A. Huerta-Macias (Eds.) – ( 2008) Adult biliteracy: Socio-cultural and programmatic responses. New York, NY: Laurence Erlbaum Associates. Rivera, K. (1999).Native language literacy and adult ESL instruction. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: National Center for ESL Literacy Education

103 References (3) Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Wrigley, H. S. (2003). What works for adult ESL students? Focus on Basics, 6(C). Retrieved March 2, 2006, from

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