Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Educational Integration of Immigrant Children & Youth: Policy Ineffectiveness & Consequences for Learners and Society Yan Guo & Yvonne Hébert 14 th National.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Educational Integration of Immigrant Children & Youth: Policy Ineffectiveness & Consequences for Learners and Society Yan Guo & Yvonne Hébert 14 th National."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Integration of Immigrant Children & Youth: Policy Ineffectiveness & Consequences for Learners and Society Yan Guo & Yvonne Hébert 14 th National Metropolis Conference Toronto March 3, 2012 University of Calgary

2 Introduction Almost 6,293,000 people (~1/5) speak languages other than English or French as their mother tongue ESL learners are now the majority in larger urban school districts Implications for official languages policy and education Consequences for policy and life in terms of educational attainment, employment and immigrant incorporation

3 Four Sections I Social Justice as Theoretical Framework IIThe ESL Case: Demographic Growth and Educational Inconsistencies III Consequences for Immigrant Children and Canadian Society IV Towards Social Justice: Policy Recommendations

4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Towards Social Justice:

5 Scales of Social Justice Social justice = the will to render to everyone their due A) Distributive justice promotes individual freedom and the equal distribution of material and social goods B) Retributive justice emphasizes the processes of production of goods C) Recognitive justice includes social goods in their scope, such as opportunity, position, and power, as well as institutional inequities D) Redistribution, Recognition & Representation: tri- dimensional framework in economic, social & political spheres

6 Three Dimensional Model of Social Justice How much economic inequality does justice permit? How much redistribution is required and according to which principle of distributive justice? What constitutes equal respect, which kinds of differences merit public recognition, and by which means? Who are the relevant subjects entitled to just redistribution or reciprocal recognition? What is the proper frame within which to consider questions of justice?


8 The ESL Case : Demographic Growth and Educational Inconsistencies, I AB: 14,673 ESL students (1989) to 71,541 (2010) BC: 34,176 ESL students (1990) to 64,450 (2010) Provincial governments repeatedly cut ESL services Numerous inconsistencies limit ESL student success in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Ontario ESL in crisis: Failure to address issues & to provide quality education to these students

9 Funding caps Redirection of ESL funding to other expenses Deficient model underlies the systemic discrimination of ESL students in schools View of students as ‘poor & despised’ Lack of teacher preparation Ad-hoc, fragmented ESL programming The ESL Case : Demographic Growth and Educational Inconsistencies, II

10 Funding Caps Five years in BC and seven years in AB for additional support for ESL (2012 levels) No similar limits on financial support of English first language learners enrolled in Learning Assistance, or Gifted Education or French Immersion Most recent example of a systemic, structural barrier to equitable treatment

11 Redirection of ESL Funding to Other Expenses $1178.10 per eligible FTE funded ESL student on top of the base amount per student in AB ESL funding, not targeted; easily redirected Toronto: ESL funding > utilities & maintenance

12 Systemic Discrimination ESL is the subject of systemic discrimination in schools: Practices: Room allocation; district & gov’t distribution of funding Respondents: ESL/ESD provision has a lower status than most other teaching areas in schools Parents and students: Concerns of discrimination and racism

13 Lack of Teacher Preparation Teaching ESL, not part of basic teacher training Teachers’ lack of knowledge about how to teach ESL students effectively: Partially responsible for the low achievements of ESL students

14 Ad-hoc ESL Programming Alberta Education: –ESL Hi School Program – out of date (1997) –Up to each school to develop ESL program –No explicit elementary ESL curriculum Comparison: –Programmes for French Immersion, a second language program Poor quality education of immigrant children and youth

15 Consequences for Immigrant Children and Canadian Society Educational outcomes & future earnings of immigrant children, 1 st & 2 nd generation Creation of a permanent underclass that is very costly for society Educational outcomes of immigrant children: more likely to complete university than children born in Canada Highly relevant to Canada’s future

16 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Towards Social Justice:

17 Accountability & Responsibility Accountability mechanisms to ensure financial reporting from schools and school boards General Federal responsibility to finance official languages education Therefore, responsibility for equitable provision of Official Languages federal funding for immigrant children and youth

18 Plurilingualism Policy ISSUE: English-only classrooms Code-switching as social norm: Plurilingual communicative competence as reality in classrooms and beyond Speakers interrelate and interact flexibly & effectively in different situations and with various speakers according to languages known Cultural contexts of language experiences, from home to school to society at large, drawing on resources within several repertoires

19 Antiracism Education Implementation of antiracism education in the school system : to overcome pervasive fear of differences Move towards understanding and appreciating difference Most fundamental trait of humanity, as positive, and enriching our lives FROM FEAR TO DIGNITY OF DIFFERENCE

20 Teacher Preparation, Professional Development & Graduate Education Recruit teachers with cultural & linguistic repertoires Develop socially just attitudes, awareness, discourses, knowledge of all pre-service teachers Inclusion of strong language methodologies for all pre-service teachers in support of plurilingual learners

21 Redressing School Inequalities for Improved Educational Outcomes, I Rather than asking how members of non- dominant groups adapt to dominant culture schools and practices, we might ask how well schools and classrooms adapt to the presence of students from non-dominant groups, or how schools and classrooms can be transformed to better serve these students (Orellana & Gutiérrez, 2006: 118-119)

22 Equitable distribution of educational resources Improved classroom practices, for ex.: –Increase time spent on reading, science & math –Increase mixed-ability groupings, classes & schools –Increase effective language teaching within content areas Redressing School Inequalities for Improved Educational Outcomes, II

23 From Stranger to Citizen The immigrant child, especially the immigrant youth, as well as the immigrant family, as the poor family, is created as a ‘stranger’ and as a ‘forever foreigner’ Social justice perspective: –Greater recognition of basic individual rights; –community-building activities, –more participation & representation; –allocation of sufficient resources for success

24 Conclusions Poor quality education of ESL learners, their systematic exclusion from mainstream schooling & society: –Based on the notion of the ‘stranger’ –Sets up person outside of regular, citified activity Policy to reduce & eliminate forms of segregation, so as to facilitate inclusion and integration to everyone’s benefit As in a mirror, the ‘stranger’ is ‘us’

Download ppt "Educational Integration of Immigrant Children & Youth: Policy Ineffectiveness & Consequences for Learners and Society Yan Guo & Yvonne Hébert 14 th National."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google