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Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge UP. N99C0028 王淑鈴 Winni N99C0003 向倍儀 Ellie.

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Presentation on theme: "Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge UP. N99C0028 王淑鈴 Winni N99C0003 向倍儀 Ellie."— Presentation transcript:

1 Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge UP. N99C0028 王淑鈴 Winni N99C0003 向倍儀 Ellie

2  Communicative Competence everything that a speaker needs to know in order to communicate appropriately within a particular community people share knowledge of a common language to at least some extent

3 Constructs 1.Knowledge of linguistic competence 2.Knowledge of specific components & levels of a language 3.Knowledge for appropriate use in communicative activities

4  Pragmatic competence 實用 people must know in order to interpret and convey meaning within communicative situations 1.Knowledge account for the choices they make 2.Constraints in using language in social interaction 3.Effects their use of language

5 1.Language use isn’t just as the production of the other domains 2.Use plays an essential role in creation, maintenance and change

6 Knowledge of L2 learners 1.General cognitive development ( he previously acquired) 2.Prior social experience 3.L1 Acquisition ※ Adults with prior knowledge learn better than children advantages : 1.Expressing 2.Perceing writer/speaker intent 3.Fuifilling interactional and instrumental goals of communication

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8  1.learn about other subjects  2.a tool in scholarly research  3.a medium in professional or occupational field

9 Contact with others face-to –face Ex: speaking There is no necessary reason for one type to proceed the other. Literacy in L1 facilitates acquisition of competence in L2 under conditions of formal instruction

10  vocabulary(lexicon)  morphology(word structure)  phonology(sound system)  syntax(grammar)  discourse(ways to connect sentences & organize information)

11 1.The most important level of L2 (academic & interpersonal competence) 2. Content words 實詞 : N, Adj, V, Adv Function words 虛詞 : 連接詞, 介係詞, 冠詞 代名詞 3.idioms, metaphors, collocations P139.

12  The number of words  The degree of vocabulary knowledge ability to “pick up” information from contexts Knowledge: p Linguistic knowledge 2.World knowledge 3. Strategic knowledge

13  Derivation morphology 衍生構詞學 : affix 1.compounding words Ex: head-ache, wind-shield 2.creating new meanings prefix: Ex: unhappy, impossible suffix : Ex: teacher, worker 3.changing parts of speech Ex: friendly, believable

14  Inflectional morphology 曲折構詞學 grammatical markers represent such concepts as tense, number, gender…… Ex: kicked, coming, books

15  Critical period Hypothesis 關鍵期 learners past the age of puberty are unable to achieve native-like pronunciation in any case—no matter how much effort is spent on the learning task  Phoneme 音素 ( 音韻學最小單位 ) 1.Which speech sounds are meaningful components of phonological system 2.Bundles of distinctive features

16  the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.  the study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words. 1.order of elements SVO: English, Chinese, French, Russian SOV: Japanese, Turkish, Finnish VSO: Irish, Welsh, Samoan 2.Degree of flexibility Ex: German, Russian p.147

17  Microstructural discourse level  Macrostructural discourse level l  Linguistic elements at the level of discourse function beyond the scope of a single sentence. (p.150)

18  Microstructural discourse level 1.Sequential indicators 2.Logical connectors 3.Other device to create cohesion  Macrostructural discourse level 1.particular genres( 體裁 ) 2.Interactional strategies (politeness, turn-taking) ->differ in different cultures

19  Sequential indicator: Ex. First, we will consider……… Then,…… Next,…….. Finally,……..  Temporal sequence: Ex. before-after, yesterday-today-tomorrow  Spatial sequence:

20  logical connector 1. cause-effect (e.g. because; as a result; consequently) 2. contrast (e.g. however; on the other hand) 3. addition of information (e.g. furthermore; moreover)

21  Cohesion Types of cohesion in English Reference 相關性 Conjunction 連接詞 Pronominal 代名詞 He, they Additive 補充的 and, as well as Demonstratives; articles 指示詞 This, that, the Adversative 反義詞 yet, but, however Comparatives 比較詞 same, otherCausalso, it follows Substitution 替換詞 Temporal 時間性的 Then, in the end Nominal substitutionone, all Continuative 持續性 的 of course, anyway Verbal substitutiondo, likewise Lexical 語詞的 Clausal 子句 substitution soSame itemMushroom-mushroom Ellipsis 省落詞 Synonym 同義詞 the ascent-the climb Nominal, Verbal, Clausal EllipsisSuper- ordinate A new Jaguar-the car General itemthe rafters-those things CollocationBoy-girl,north-south

22  Genres ( 體裁 ) “ conventionalized” 約定成俗 1.Academic genres-research paper, lectures, and book-review 2.Interpersonal genres-conversation, service encounter, letters -  Contrastive Rhetoric( 對比修辭學 ) “compare genre-specific conventions in different languages and cultures.”

23  Receptive Activities Reading Listening  Productive Activities Writing Speaking

24 Receptive Processing  Bottom-up 1.prior knowledge of the language system( i.e. vocabulary, morphology, syntax, and discourse structure) 2.interpretation of physical(graphic and auditory) cue  Top-down “compensate for linguistic limitation”, “prior knowledge” “guess the meaning” 1.Content Knowledge 2.Context Knowledge Schemas 3.Culture Knowledge Limitation: L2 learner’s language knowledge is insufficient. Especial, for early stage learners.

25  Content: 1.background knowledge about the topic. 2.might have studied in their L1 3.A scaffold for understanding and integrating.  Context: 1.In a specific text or situation. 2.Understanding what the intentions are. 3.Prediction of what is likely to follow, and how is likely to be organized.  Culture: social dimensions

26 Receptive Processing

27 Beginning L2 reading Some difficulties: different symbolic writing system (orthography) (S-T p.157) Different forms and handwriting A new convention of punctuation (ex. Thai and Lao, Chinese character)

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29 Academic Reading  Grabe (1991)- fluent academic reading 1.Automatic recognition ability 2.Vocabulary and structural knowledge 3.Formal discourse structure knowledge 4.Content/ World background knowledge 5.Synthesis and evaluation processes /strategies 6.Metacognitive knowledge and comprehension monitoring

30 “Purposeful academic reading is possible even during the beginning and intermediate states of L2 learning” “reading for different purposes does not necessarily require the same level of background linguistic knowledge nor automaticity.” Grabe (2002)

31  Grabe (2002)- functions for reading in academic setting 1.Reading to find information- scan or search text for a specific topic, word, or phrase 2.Reading for general understanding- get the main ideas or some supporting ideas 3.Reading to learn- understand the main idea and store meanings and supporting details 4.Reading to critique and evaluate easy difficult Beginner Inter- mediate advanced

32 Academic Reading  Grabe (2002)- advanced reading 1.A large recognition vocabulary of basic and subject-specific items. 2.Complex sentence structure, along with punctuation conventions. 3.Organized features at sentence level – which in focus, distinguish old and new 4.Organized features at discourse level-how text are structure, how information is organized

33 SQ3R  Survey- Skim the text for an overview of main ideas  Question- ask question about what reader whish to get out of the text.  Read- Read the text while looking for answers to previously formulated questions  Recite- Reprocess the salient point of the text through oral or written language  Review- Assess the important of what just read, incorporate it into long-term associations

34 Classify Listening  Reciprocal- interpersonal interaction Non-reciprocal- radio, TV, broadcast  General Listening-general gist of the message Selective Listening- for important detail Listening phenomena Information Processing

35 Beginning L2 Listening Easier for them to understand: Know what the speaker will talk about Key words and phrases are as recognition vocabulary Speaker pause between parts of sentences Auditory message are supposed by visual image A reciprocal situation to seek repetition and clarification  segment the stream of speech into meaningful units : words, phrase, clauses, sentences

36 Beginning L2 Listening Interference: Poor signal quality (static or sound distortion) Background noise Any distraction of the listener’s attention Affective features such as anxiety Speaker pronunciation

37 Academic Listening 1.A large recognition vocabulary of basic and subject-specific items. 2.Complex sentence structure, along with punctuation conventions. 3.Organized features at sentence level – which in focus, distinguish old and new 4.Organized features at discourse level  Speakers’ different accent is a challenge for comprehension

38 Productive Processing  Bottom-up Use prior knowledge of the language system( i.e. vocabulary, morphology, syntax, and discourse structure)— Access words Combine them into phrase, clauses……  Top-down 1. Content Knowledge-writer or speaker wishes to communicate 1.Context Knowledge- what should (or should not) be written or said 2.Culture Knowledge - convention for lg use

39 Writing Academic and interpersonal function The meaningful language output facilitate SLA 1.Generating input 2.Enhancing fluency 3.Helping learners notice gaps in their own knowledge -- give more attention to relevant information 4.Opportunity for monitoring and revision 5.Providing opportunity for others to comment on problem and give corrective feedback

40 Beginning L2 Writing different orthographic system- extensive practice begin with low-level task (1) copying, tracing over (2) words or phrases that recognize by sight (3) recording graphically something they hear Vocabulary Knowledge Transfer of effective language-specific writing process Give learner a model to follow  “plagiarism”

41 Academic Writing Effective academic writing 1)Considerable knowledge of linguistic element- vocabulary, morphology and syntax 2)Mechanics of orthographic representation and punctuation 3)Conventions related to style and organization 4)Relatively formal register 5)Accuracy in production

42 Speaking Important for interpersonal purpose Involved in bottom-up and top-down processing (1) bottom-up: appropriate vocabulary, feature of pronunciation, grammatical pattern, discourse structure (2) top-down: (A) content knowledge about the topic (B) microsocial context- speaker role and relationship to addresses, appropriate conditions (C) macrosocial context

43  Speech Act 語言行為 an utterance as a functional unit in communication ex. Request something, apologize, promise, deny, express emotion, compliment, complain…… 1)Locutionary meaning ( 言內意義 )- literal meaning 2)Illocutionary force ( 言外意義 ) – the effect the speaker wants the utterance to have on listener. Ex. I am thirsty  Pragmatic( 語用學 ) competence -- knowing when to deploy speech act

44 Communicative Competence Knowledge of conversational structure (1) cultural difference (2) back-channel signal =feedback (3) adjacency pair ( 鄰對 ) Knowledge of contextualization cue (1) selection of vocabulary and pronunciation (2) prosody (intonation and stress) (3) rhythmic pattern (pause and stop) Knowledge of communication strategies

45 Communication Strategies Typology of communication strategies 1. Avoidance (a) Topic avoidance Avoiding reference to a subject for which the learner lacks necessary vocabulary (b) Message abandonmentGiving up on a topic because it is too difficult to talk about 2. Paraphrase (a) ApproximationUsing a word that is not correct, but that refers to a similar subject (b) Word coinageMaking up a new word or phrase to describe an object and event (c) CircumlocutionDescribing an object or event instead of using an appropriate vocabulary item 3. Conscious transfer (a) Literal translationTranslating word for word from the L1 (b) Language switchInserting L1 words or phrases into L2 4. Appeal for assistance 5. MimeUsing gesture or other nonverbal mean Elaine Tarone (1977)

46 Thanks for listening!


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