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Jill Doubleday Mary Page Centre for Global Englishes,UoS.

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Presentation on theme: "Jill Doubleday Mary Page Centre for Global Englishes,UoS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jill Doubleday Mary Page Centre for Global Englishes,UoS

2  ‘This volume explores the spread of English in the world or global Englishes, and English as a lingua franca (ELF), also known as English as an international language (EIL) from varying perspectives……’ (Murata & Jenkins, 2009:1)  ‘Thus, we believe (‘global Englishes’) encompasses both centrifugal and centripetal natures of WE, EIL or ELF simultaneously.’ (Murata & Jenkins, 2009:5)

3  ‘Both world Englishes and ELF are by nature more centrifugal and diversifying, since they are not constrained by native-speaker (NS) English norms. The same is true for the notions of EIL and ELF although ELF is sometimes (mis)interpreted as being centripetal by virtue of the fact that it enables people with differing mother tongues and Englishes to communicate internationally and interculturally through English.’ (Murata & Jenkins, 2009:3)

4  ‘ELF belongs to the global Englishes paradigm in which all Englishes are seen as sui generis rather than as attempts to approximate a native speaker version….’ (Jenkins, 2010:3)

5  ‘The rise of English to a position of a lingua franca in the present-day world has led to the emergence of something that has come to be called ‘Global English’, i.e. English as a world language. This new English is now used for numerous purposes as a means of international interaction, as well as a daily means of communication for hundreds of millions of people in countries where English has obtained the position of a second official or unofficial language, i.e. as an L2 language. In addition to these, even more people all over the world learn English as a ‘foreign’ language as part of their basic and further education.’ (GlobE, undated)

6  ‘Our aim is to tap these viewpoints, arising from previous work by ourselves and other scholars on varieties of core English, New Englishes, and English used as a lingua franca/second language.’ (GlobE, undated)

7  ‘We have chosen to use the term ‘Global English’ for the kinds of phenomena we are interested in, as it avoids the somewhat narrower interpretations commonly associated with other terms such as ‘New English(es)’, ‘World English(es)’, or ‘International English’. As pointed out by, e.g. Mesthrie and Bhatt (2008: 3 ff.), the first of these is most often limited to varieties of English spoken in postcolonial settings, also known as the ‘Outer Circle’ (Kachru, 1988). ‘World English’ according to Mesthrie and Bhatt (op.cit., 3) often excludes British English and the other ‘Inner Circle’ Englishes, and furthermore, carries the same type of connotation as ‘World Music’. ‘International English’, in turn, runs the risk of being associated with the English as used by non-native speakers only. In our view, ‘Global English’ conveys best the nature of the phenomena investigated here: what is at issue is not a discrete variety or a group of varieties in the same sense as the others mentioned above, but rather a set of phenomena found in Englishes spoken in different kinds of regional, social, and contextual settings both within the Inner and the Outer Circles.’ (GlobE, undated)

8  ‘It is of course true that ELF research has had its primary focus on Kachru’s Expanding Circle, but obviously communication via ELF frequently happens in and across all three of Kachru’s circles. Research in the ‘world Englishes paradigm’, on the other hand, has been less concerned with the Expanding Circle’ (Seidlhofer, 2009a: 236)

9  ‘Though different in some respects, (ELF and WE) are engaged in the same shared endeavour to understand and confront the sociolinguistic challenges of a rapidly changing world. This is why ELF merits acceptance as forming part of the wider WE research community, to which, I would suggest, it can bring fresh impulses and ideas in the continuing exploration of our common ground.’ (Seidlhofer, 2009a: 243)

10  ‘Some scholars use the term ‘World Englishes’ in a limited way to refer only to Englishes in the Outer Circle countries. However, my usage of the term covers Englishes from all circles.’ (Sharifian, 2009:3)

11  ‘This volume explores the spread of English in the world or global Englishes, and English as a lingua franca (ELF), also known as English as an international language (EIL) from varying perspectives …’ (Murata & Jenkins, 2009:1)

12  ‘It should be mentioned here that while the EIL paradigm does problematize the polarization of the English speaking world into native speaker/non-native speaker, it does include so-called ‘native speakers’ of English. There is after all no word in the phrase ‘English as an International Language’ that would automatically exclude the native speakers of the language.’ (Sharifian, 2009:4-5)

13  ‘The most wide-spread contemporary use of English throughout the world is that of English as a lingua franca (ELF), i.e. English used as a common means of communication between speakers from different first- language backgrounds.’ English as a lingua franca (ELF) (VOICE)

14  ‘In this book, I will use the term ‘ELF’ to refer to the use of English in an international context as a lingua franca between two people with a different L1, but excluding L1 speakers of English. I will use the acronym EIL to refer to the use of English in an international context as a lingua franca between people with a different L1, including L1 speakers of English when they are using English with L2 users.’ (Prodromou, 2008)

15  ‘We will use the term ELF in the narrow sense described above to include only interactions between L2 speakers of English who do not share a common culture, hence excluding, for example, Indian speakers of English who choose to use English to communicate with other Indian speakers of English who have a different mother tongue, as well as the interactions between L1 and L2 English speakers.’ (McKay & Bokhurst-Heng, 2008:xvi)

16  We will use EIL as an umbrella term to characterize the use of English between any two L2 speakers of English, whether sharing the same culture or not, as well as L2 and L1 speakers of English. Our definition then includes speakers of World Englishes communicating within their own country, as well as ELF interactions. It also includes L2 speakers of English using English with L1 speakers. Our definition of EIL is thus much more comprehensive than some who equate EIL with ELF. We also view EIL as far more complex linguistically than is allowed for in either the World Englishes or ELF model.’ (McKay & Bokhurst-Heng, 2008:xvi)

17  ‘The term International English is sometimes used as a shorthand for EIL, but is misleading in that it suggests that there is one clearly distinguishable, codified and unitary variety called International English, which clearly is not the case.’ (Seidlhofer, 2004: 210)

18  “‘International English’” is indeed generally interpreted as the distribution of native- speaker Standard English rather than the way English has changed to meet international needs.’ (Seidlhofer, 2009a:237)

19  ‘Globalish should incorporate national peculiarities beyond those of today’s English, namely also those of non-native speakers. It would not only comprise American, British, Australian English and so forth, but also Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, German and other Englishes.’ (Ammon, 2003:34)

20  …..‘the worldwide dialect of the third millennium’.  ‘For Nerrière, Globish starts from a utilitarian vocabulary of some 1,500 words, is designed for use by non-native speakers, and is currently popularised in two (French language) handbooks, Découvrez le Globish and Parlez Globish. As a concept ‘Globish’ is now quite widely recognised across the European Union, and is often referred to by Europeans who use English in their everyday interactions’.  ‘Today, with the emergence of Globish, the evolution of the ‘new Englishes’ into separate languages seems increasingly unlikely’.  (McCrum, 2010:8,9,263)

21  The terminology of our field is confusing, especially for a newcomer: ◦ terms are used differently by different researchers ◦ terms change in meaning ◦ terms are fuzzy.  In order to establish a clear and consistent group identity, a positive move forward might be to decide on our own definitions and usage of these terms.

22 Ammon, U (2003) ‘Global English and the non-native speaker. Overcoming disadvantage’ in Tonkin, H & Reagan, Y (eds) Language in the Twenty-First Century : Selected Papers of the Millenial Conferences of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems, Held at the University of Hartford and Yale University. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, p23- 34. ELFA Project available at accessed 06/01/11 Global English Consortium (GlobE) available at accessed 06/01/11 International Corpus of English available at accessed 06/01/11 Jenkins, J (2007) English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity Oxford: Oxford University Press Jenkins, J., Accommodating (to) ELF in the international university, Journal of Pragmatics (2010), doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2010.05.011 McCrum,R (2010) Globish. How the English Language became the World’s Language London: Penguin Viking

23 McKay, SL & Bokhurst-Heng, WD (2008) International English in Its Sociolinguistic Contexts. Towards a Socially Sensitive EIL Pedagogy New York, NY: Routledge Murata, K & Jenkins, J (2009) Global Englishes in Asian Contexts Current and Future Debates Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan Prodromou, L (2008) English as a Lingua Franca. A Corpus-based Analysis London: Continuum Seidlhofer, B (2004) ‘Research Perspectives on teaching English as a Lingua Franca’ Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24:209-39 Seidlhofer B (2009a) ‘Common ground and different realities: world Englishes and English as a lingua franca’ World Englishes 28 (2): 236-245 Seidlhofer, B (2009b) ‘Orientations in ELF Research: Form and Function’ in Mauranen, A & Ranta, E (Eds) (2009) English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings,37-59 Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Sharifian, F (2009) English as an International Language: Perspectives and Pedagogical Issues Bristol: Multilingual Matters VOICE available at: accessed 06/01/11

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