Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
Religious Reasons for Settlement in New England losing their English heritage therefore they sailed to America in 1617 to start a new life. The Pilgrims landed in Plymouth and immediately began setting up housing. Soon the plague came and killed all but 50 settlers. Thankfully, Squanto helped the settlers learn how to fish, hunt, and plant crops. The Pilgrims fled to Holland in 1608 from England to avoid religious persecution, but felt that their children were
Massachusetts Due to increased persecution of Puritans and a depression in the wool industry that many Puritans worked in, they were willing to leave England to start a new life in America. The Massachusetts Bay Company received a charter in March 1629 from the King to colonize in America. John Winthrop, a stockholder in the Massachusetts Bay Company and a lawyer, decided to sail to America and found Massachusetts as a refuge for Puritans. Boston was named the capital of Massachusetts.
Town Meetings/Legislature Town meetings (political) as well as church services (religious) often took place at the same local meetinghouse. White men who owned a certain amount of property and were recognized members of a church could attend the town meetings. Officers, collectively called the legislature, were elected once a year to the council. The legislature wrote laws and levied taxes.
Get With a Partner Using your book as a guide, complete the map of the 13 colonies. Label each of the colonies. Along with the colonies, include the cities of Jamestown, Salem, Plymouth, Providence, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ohio River. Maps in book to use as a guide on pages: –P.65P. 81 –P. 85 –P. 92P. 70 –P. 75P. 107 –P. 76
Bell Ringer, Sept. 4 What group of people left England for religious persecution and settled in Plymouth? What group of Indians helped the settlers of Jamestown survive? What American Indian helped the Pilgrims survive? What differences are there between the Puritans and the Pilgrims?
Founding of Rhode Island Roger Williams was a strict Separatist; he believed that the Puritan church should completely separate from the Anglican church. Due to his outspoken beliefs he was ordered to leave Massachusetts, therefore he bought his own land from a Native American tribe and began his own colony called Providence. In Providence, the government had no authority in religious matters. Different religions were tolerated rather than suppressed.
Founding of Rhode Island, cont. Anne Hutchinson was a devout Puritan who held prayer meetings in her home, but as people began to believe her more she began to take advantage of that authority and started telling her followers that she knew which ministers had salvation from God and which didn’t. Anne Hutchinson was banished from Massachusetts on the grounds of heresy because Hutchinson said that God spoke to her directly, when Puritan belief says that God only speaks through the Bible. Hutchinson and her followers moved to Pocasset, later known as Portsmouth.
Founding of Rhode Island, cont. Other people were banished from Massachusetts over the next few years. They also left and moved south. They founded Newport in 1639 and Warwick in 1643. Newport, Warwick, Portsmouth, and Providence joined together to make Rhode Island and Providence Plantations where religious freedom and total separation of church and state was key to the colony’s charter.
Half-way Covenant The original Puritans that came to the colonies were full church members, as they started the beliefs. Their children were baptized as babies and were supposed to claim a conversion experience when they were ready to become full members. Many of these children never did claim conversion experiences. The church feared its dwindling numbers, therefore they gave the children or grandchildren of full members that were baptized partial membership in the church. These “half” member could not vote, hold office, or partake in the Lord’s Supper. This later became a huge controversy when Great Awakening preachers like Jonathan Edwards came into the picture.
King Philip (English name), Metacom (Wampanoag name), was the leader of the Wampanoag tribe. The settlers and the Wampanoag had a peace while the fur trade was good, but once the business declined and they didn’t need each other as much anymore trouble came. Three Wampanoag were executed for murder. The Warriors retaliated on the town of Swansea, this fighting became known as King Philip’s War and lasted from 1675-1678, when Metacom died. The settlers won and the Natives that survived scattered throughout New England.
Salem Witch Trials Another man who was over eighty years old was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft. Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended. From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, all having been convicted of witchcraft [by teenage girls], were carted to Gallows Hill, a barren slope near Salem Village, for hanging. http://en.vidivodo.com/205992/salem-witch-trials
Jamestown Plymouth Compare and contrast the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies.
Closing Who are the Puritans that were banished from Massachusetts and helped to found Rhode Island? Which side won King Philip’s War, and why was it a turning point? Why did the Pilgrims (Puritans) leave England and Holland to settle in Massachusetts?