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CSCE 432/832 High Performance ---- An Introduction to Multicore Memory Hierarchy Dongyuan Zhan.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCE 432/832 High Performance ---- An Introduction to Multicore Memory Hierarchy Dongyuan Zhan."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCE 432/832 High Performance ---- An Introduction to Multicore Memory Hierarchy Dongyuan Zhan

2 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 2 What We Learnt from the Video The Motivation of Multi-core Processors –Better utilization of on-chip transistor resources as technology scales –Use thread-level parallelism to increase throughput Two Models of Multi-core Processors –Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous CMPs Communication & Synchronization among Cores –Communicate with each other via the shared cache/memory –Synchronize reads/writes via locks, mutex or transactional memory How to Program Multi-core Processors –Using OpenMP to write parallel programs

3 From Teraflop Multiprocessor to Teraflop Multicore 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 3 ASCI RED (1997~2005)

4 Intel Teraflop Multicore Prototype 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 4

5 From Teraflop Multiprocessor to Teraflop Multicore Pictured here is ASCI Red which was the first computer to reach a Teraflops of processing, equal to trillions of calculations per second. –Using about 10,000 Pentium Processors running at 200MHzPentium Processors –Consuming 500kW of power for computation and another 500kW for cooling –Occupy a very large room Intel has now announced just over 10 yeas later that they have developed the world’s first processor that will deliver the same Teraflops performance all on one single performance –80-core on a single chip running at 5 GHz –Consuming only 62 watts power –Small enough to rest on the tip of your finger. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 5

6 A Commodity Many-core Processor Tile64 Multicore Processor (2007~now) 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 6

7 The Schematic Design of Tile64 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 7 4 essential components Processor Core on-chip Cache Network-on-Chip (NoC) I/O controllers PCIe 1 MAC PHY PCIe 1 MAC PHY PCIe 0 MAC PHY PCIe 0 MAC PHY Serdes Flexible IO GbE 0 GbE 1 Flexible IO UART, HPI JTAG, I2C, SPI UART, HPI JTAG, I2C, SPI DDR2 Memory Controller 3 DDR2 Memory Controller 0 DDR2 Memory Controller 2 DDR2 Memory Controller 1 XAUI MAC PHY 0 XAUI MAC PHY 0 Serdes XAUI MAC PHY 1 XAUI MAC PHY 1 Serdes PROCESSOR P2 Reg File P1P0 CACHE L2 CACHE L1IL1D ITLBDTLB 2D DMA STN MDNTDN UDNIDN SWITCH

8 Agenda Today An Introduction to the Multi-core Memory Hierarchy –Why do we need the memory hierarchy for any processors? »A tradeoff between capacity and latency »Make common cases fast as a result of programs’ locality (general principle in computer architecture) –What is the difference between the memory hierarchies of single-core and multi-core CPUs? »Quite distinct from each other in on-chip caches –Managing the CMP caches is of paramount importance in performance »Again, we still have the capacity and latency issues for CMP caches »How to keep CMP cache coherent »Hardware & software management schemes 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 8

9 The Motivation for Mem Hierarchy 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 9 CPU Registers 100s Bytes ns L1 and L2 Cache 10s-100s K Bytes ~1 ns - ~10 ns Main Memory G Bytes 200ns ~ 300ns ~ $15/ GByte Disk 1s -10s T Bytes ~ 10 ms ~ $0.15 / GByte Capacity Access Time Cost Registers L1 Cache Memory Disk Instr. Operands Blocks Pages prog./compiler 4-8 bytes cache cntl 32 or 64 bytes OS 4K~ 64K bytes Upper Level L2 Cache cache cntl 64 or 128 bytes Blocks Lower Level faster Larger Trading off between capacity and latency On Chip Off Chip

10 Programs’ Locality Two Kinds of Basic Locality –Temporal: »if a memory location is referenced, then it is likely that the same memory location will be referenced again in the near future. int i; register int j; for (i = 0; i < 20000; i++) for (j = 0; j < 300; j++); –Spatial: »if a memory location is referenced, then it is likely that nearby memory locations will be referenced in the near future. Locality + smaller HW is to make common cases faster = memory hierarchy 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 10

11 The Challenges of Memory Wall The Truths: –In many applications, 30-40% the total instructions are memory operations –CPU speed scales much faster than the DRAM speed »In 1980, CPUs and DRAMs were operated at almost the same speed, about 4MHz~8MHz »CPU clock frequency has doubled every 2 years; »DRAM speed have only been doubling about every 6 years. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 11

12 Memory Wall –DRAM bandwidth is quite limited: two DDR2-800 modules can reach the bandwidth of 12.8GB/sec (about 6.4B/cpu_cycle if the cpu runs at 2GHz). So, in a multicore processor, when multiple 64-bit cores need to access the memory at the same time, they will exacerbate contention on the DRAM bandwidth. –Memory Wall: CPU needs to speed a lot of time on off- chip memory accesses. E.g., Intel XScale spends on average 35% of the total execution time on memory accesses. High latency and low bandwidth of the DRAM system becomes a bottleneck for CPUs. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 12

13 Solutions How to alleviate the memory wall problem –Hiding the mem access latency: prefetching –Reducing the latency: making memory closer to the CPU: 3D- stacked on-chip DRAM –Increasing the bandwidth: optical I/O –Reducing the number of memory accesses: keeping as much reusable data on cache as possible 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 13

14 CMP Cache Organizations (Shared L2 Cache) 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 14

15 CMP Cache Organizations (Private L2 Cache) 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 15

16 How to Address Blocks in a CMP How to address blocks in a single-core processor –L1 caches are typically virtually indexed but physically tagged, while L2 caches are mostly physically indexed and tagged (related to virtual memory). How to address blocks in a CMP –L1 caches are accessed in the same way as in a single-core processor –If the L2 caches are private, the addressing of a block is still the same –If the L2 caches are shared among all of the cores, then 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 16

17 How to Address Blocks in a CMP 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 17

18 How to Address Blocks in a CMP 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 18

19 CMP Cache Coherence Snoop based: –All caches on the bus snoop the bus to determine if they have a copy of the block of data that is requested on the bus. Multiple copies of a data block can be read without any coherence problems; however, a processor must have exclusive access (either invalidate or update other copies) to the bus in order to write. –Enough for small-scale CMPs with bus interconnection Directory based –the data being shared is tracked in a common directory that maintains the coherence between caches. When a cache line is changed the directory either updates or invalidates the other caches with that cache line. –Necessary for many-core CMPs with such interconnection as mesh 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 19

20 Non-Uniform Cache Access Time in Shared L2 Caches 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 20

21 Non-Uniform Cache Access Time in Shared L2 Caches Let’s assume that Core0 needs to access a data block stored in Tile15 –Assume that access an L2 cache bank needs 10 cycles; –Assume transferring a data block from one router to an adjacent one needs 2 cycles; –Then, an remote access to the block in Tile 15 needs 10+2*(2*6)=34 cycles, much greater than an local L2 access. Non-Uniform Cache Access Time (NUCA) means that the latency of accessing an cache is a function of the physical locations of both the requesting core and the cache. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 21

22 How to reduce the latency of Remote Cache Access At least two solutions: –Place the data close enough to the requesting core »Victim replication [1]: placing L1 victim blocks in the Local L2 cache; »Change the layout of the data: I will talk about one approach pretty soon; –Use faster transmission »Use special on-chip interconnect to transmit data via radio-wave or light-wave signals 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 22

23 The RF-Interconnect [2] 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 23

24 Interference in Caching in Shared L2 Caches The Problem: because the shared L2 caches are accessible to all cores, one core can interfere with another in placing blocks in L2 caches –For example, in a dual-core CMP, if a stream application like a video player is co-scheduled with a scientific computation application that has good locality, then the aggressive stream application will continuously place new blocks in L2 cache and replace the computation application’s cached blocks, thus affecting the computation application’s performance. Solution: –Regulate cores’ usage of the L2 cache based on their utility of using the cache [3] 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 24

25 The Capacity Problems in Private L2 Caches The Problems: –the L2 capacity accessible to each core is fixed, regardless of the core’s real cache capacity demand. E.g., if two applications are co-scheduled on a dual core CMP with two 1MB private L2 caches, and if one application has a cache demand of 0.5 MB while the other asks for 1.5MB, then one private L2 cache is underutilized while the other is overwhelmed. –If a parallel program is running on the CMP, different cores will have a lot of data in common. However, the private L2 cache organization requires each core maintain a copy of the common data in its local cache, leading to a lot of data redundancy and degrading the effective A Solution: Cooperative Caching [4] 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 25

26 A Comparison Between Shared and Private L2 Caches 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 26 L2SL2P set mapping First locate the tile and then index the set The same as in a single-core CPU coherence directory each L2 entry has its own directory bits; no separate directory caches. independent shared directory caches employing the same mapping scheme as in Fig. capacityhigh aggregate capacity for any coresrelatively low capacity for each core latency due to the distributed mapping, a lot of requested data (on-chip) will be in non-local L2 $ the requested data (on-chip) is in the private (closest) L2 $ SharingCapacity & DataNone performance Isolation severe contention in L2 capacity allocation among cores no interference among cores Commodity CMPs Intel Core 2 Duo E6600 Sun Sparc Niagara2 Tilera Tile64 (64 cores) AMD Athlon Intel Pentium D 840

27 Using OS to Manage CMP Caches [5] Two kinds of address space: –virtual (or logic) & physical Page coloring: there is a correspondence between a physical page and its location in the cache In CMPs with Shared L2 Cache, by changing the mapping scheme, we can use the OS to determine where a virtual page required by a core is located in the L2 cache –Tile#(where a page is cached) = physical page number % #Tiles 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 27

28 Using OS to Manage CMP Caches 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 28

29 Using OS to Manage CMP Caches The Benefits –Improved Data Proximity –Capacity Sharing –Data Sharing (to be introduced next time) 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 29

30 Summary What we have covered this class –The Memory Wall problem for CMPs –The two basic cache organizations for CMPs –HW & SW approaches of managing the last level cache. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 30

31 References [1] M. Zhang, et al. Victim Replication: Maximizing Capacity while Hiding Wire Delay in Tiled Chip Multiprocessors. ISCA’05. [2] F. Chang, et al. CMP Network-on-Chip Overlaid With Multi- Band RF-Interconnect. HPCA’08. [3] A. Jaleel, et al. Adaptive Insertion Policies for Managing Shared Caches. PACT’08. [4] J. Chang, et al. Cooperative Caching for Chip Multiprocessors. ISCA’06 [5] S. Cho, et al. Managing Distributed, Shared L2 Caches through OS-Level Page Allocation. MICRO’06. 4/15/2015 CSCE 432/832, CMP Memory Hierarchy 31


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