3 2004 IDEA Regs. Eligibility team should… “Draw upon information from a variety of sources, including aptitude and achievement tests, parent input, and teacher recommendations, as well as information about the child's physical condition, social or cultural background, and adaptive behavior”
5 Factors To Consider In Assessment Current grade of the student?Current and previous types of educational programs?Students language proficiency in both L1 and L2 (and L3 if applicable)?Was child appropriately placed (or not) as in an ELL program?
6 Review Data in School Records What is family history/ background?Need to get information from the familyWhat is child’s educational background?Has the child progressed while in the U.S. academically?How did he/she do before arriving in U.S.What might have been overlooked by the referral team?
7 Evaluation Procedures Measure the need for SPED services not the need for bilingual education services.Psychologists conduct informal and formal language assessments and differentiate between a language disorder from second language acquisition.Must evaluate if the primary cause meets one of the exclusionary clauses (not just check the boxes)Choose the appropriate modality to test (formal/ informal; L1/L2/ Nonverbal/ Bilingual)
8 Bilingual AssessmentIs not in L1 or L2 but in both languages simultaneouslyRequires knowledge ofExaminee’s CultureNon discriminatory assessmentFluency in L1 and L2
9 MAMBIMAMBI = Multidimensional assessment model for bilingual individualsThis model Guides choices of assessments looking at all factors of consideration.Developed by Rhodes, Ochoa, & Ortiz (2005).
10 Language Profiles Profile L1 Proficiency L2 Proficiency Description 1 MinimalCALP L1 = 1-2 and CALP L2 = 1-22EmergentCALP L1 = 3 and CALP L2 = 1-23FluentCALP L1 = 4-5 and CALP L2 = 1-24CALP L1 = 1-2 and CALP L2 = 35CALP L1 = 3 and CALP L2 = 36CALP L1 = 4-5 and CALP L2 = 37CALP L1 = 1-2 and CALP L2 = 4-58CALP L1 = 3 and CALP L2 = 4-59CALP L1 = 4-5 and CALP L2 = 4-5
12 Psychoeducational Assessment Issues Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how diverse students are treated at that school.Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional developmentSelect and administer tests so as to not discriminate on racial or cultural bias.Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.
14 2004 IDEA regs. . . Assessments should be … “selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basisprovided and administered in the child's native language or other mode of communication and in the form most likely to yieldused for the purposes for which the assessments or measures are valid and reliableadministered by trained and knowledgeable personnel”
15 Validity and Tests“When a child’s general background experiences differ from those of the children on whom a test was standardized, then the use of the norms of that test as an index for evaluation that child’s current performance or for predicting future performances may be inappropriate” (Salvia and Ysseldke, 1991).
16 Test bias . . .Test bias: when one group systematically performs differently from another group on an instrument.Early test developers felt that the reason that certain culturally groups did worse on certain tests was due to deficits in the cultural group and not problems with the tests.Test bias relates more to the validity of a test’s scores and not the reliability of the scores.Test is “culturally loaded” test contains culturally specific elements and expects a certain level of acculturation to do well.
17 Bias in testing stems from… Cultural content embedded in the testLinguistic demands inherent in any give testLack of representation within norm samplesChanging normative standards to accommodate perceived language needs (translating the test)Changing normative standards resulting in a change within the developmental nature of the tests (items go from easier to harder)
18 Developmental Nature of Test Items Test are Developmental/ incremental (easy to Hard)Learning English may have begun at a different developmental point for ELL.Students may juggle knowledge b/w L1 and L2 instead of being able to know just one language well.Students may have received fewer overall hours of exposure to English language than native English speaker.Example:English SpanishCar CocheTheir Su
19 Verbal/Nonverbal Bias Bias in nonverbal tests may occur if the instructions are in English onlyNonverbal tests not normed using stratified acculturation and Language are still biased.Bias in many tests are revealed more in the verbal tasks than in the nonverbal ones.May be due to learning styles of demonstration, sample, doing instead of Socratic methodMay be due to L1 and L2 differences
20 Normative Stratification Stratification in the norm using race does not equate to stratification based on culture.There are currently no tests that stratify based on acculturation.There are currently no tests that stratify based on amount of time exposed to English.
21 Test ValidityIf a test is biased, whatever the reason, you may be testing something other than the construct that you want to examine.IQ and Achievement tests should measure IQ and Achievement and NOT English Language proficiency!!!
22 Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) LowMod.HighPerformanceLeastAffectedIncreasing effect of Language Diff.ModIncreasing Effect of Cultural Diff.Performance Most Affected (lang. and Culture)Kranzler, Flores, & Kody, 2010: Although it makes sense to do it this waycurrent research does not exactly support it. More research is needed.
24 IQ and CultureScarr (1978): “intelligence tests are not tests of intelligence in some abstract, culture-free way. They are measures of the ability to function intellectually by virtue of knowledge and skills in the culture of which they sample.”Sample here may be the normative sample; however it may also be the items chosen to be administered as well.
25 1996: Most common Tests for Bilinguals WISC (mostly done in all English)Bender Visual-Motor GestaltDraw-a-PersonLeiter
26 Nonverbal Assessment Conducted PRIMARILY nonverbally UNITLeiter-RC-TONINonverbal DAS-2Nonverbal SB-5Nonverbal KABC-2May still require some minimal amount of knowledge using receptive language.
27 Native Language Assessment Most non-English Normative measures are in Spanish only.Normative Examples Include:Batería-III – Spanish VersionWISC-IV: Spanish VersionDIAL-3 (has a small cognitive component)CBM: DIBELS has a Spanish Version
28 Bilingual AssessmentChild can Receive Points for answers in EACH languageExamples Include:BVATSome subtests on the KABC-II
29 Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) LowMod.HighPerformanceLeastAffectedIncreasing effect of Language Diff.ModIncreasing Effect of Cultural Diff.Performance Most Affected (lang. and Culture)Kranzler, Flores, & Kody, 2010: Although it makes sense to do it this waycurrent research does not exactly support it. More research is needed.
31 Normative-based Achievement Assumptions Student is like the normative sample.Student has had opportunity to learnContent measuredLanguage used by the testSkills demanded of the testTest is measuring ability and not experience
32 Native Language Achievement Most non-English Normative measures are in Spanish only.Normative Examples Include:Batería-IIIBracken Basic Concept Scale: Spanish VersionPPVT/TVIPYCAT/PHAIDIAL-3 (more of a screener)CBM: DIBELS has a Spanish Version
33 Bilingual Assessment Achievement Child can Receive Points for answers in EACH languageExamples Include:ROWPVT-SBEEOWPVT-SBE
34 Nonverbal Achievement There are no strictly non-verbal achievement tests.Many times the math computation subtests are so similar from one language to another as to be almost nonverbal.
35 Non-English and Non-Spanish Achievement Assessment Normative assessment in achievement is pretty much not possible.Informal methods or CBM methods should be utilized in combination with parent/ teacher interviews, class observations, and child interviews.
36 Native Language Social/ Emotional/Adaptive Most non-English Normative measures are Spanish translations only.Normative Examples Include:BASC- Spanish TranslationVineland- Spanish TranslationConners- Spanish TranslationBeck Depression Inventory – Spanish TranslationThese tests are only translated into Spanish. They do not include normative data for this population.
38 Standards for Testing Individuals of Diverse Language Backgrounds Testing practice designed to reduce threats to reliability and validity.Language proficiency should be determined prior to test administration.Language proficiency should be evaluated across different language tasks.Any linguistic modifications recommended by test publishers should be in the test manual
39 Standards for Testing Individuals of Diverse Language Backgrounds When a test is recommended for this population, then developers should provide the info needed for test use and interpretation.When translating a test, describe methods used in establishing the adequacy of the translation and evidence for reliability and validity data for the translated test’s scores.When an interpreter is used in testing, the interpreter should be fluent in both languages, should have expertise in translating, and should have a basic understanding of the assessment process.