Presentation on theme: "Second language (L2) acquisition December 3, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Second language (L2) acquisition December 3, 2008
Second language (L2) acquisition Refers to research involving Simultaneous bilinguals (learned two languages at the same time) Simultaneous bilinguals (learned two languages at the same time) Developmental bilingualism (learned second language in childhood) Developmental bilingualism (learned second language in childhood) Adult bilingualism (learned L2 in adulthood) Adult bilingualism (learned L2 in adulthood) Multilingualism (learned more than 2 languages) Multilingualism (learned more than 2 languages) Researchers can refer to anyone who has or is learning a second language as a “bilingual”
Second Language Acquisition Typical research questions: 1. What kinds of classroom techniques are best for teaching/learning L2? (observations) 2. What kinds of errors do L2 learners make and why do they make them? (corpora) 3. What makes someone a good/bad L2 learner? (surveys) 4. Is there an optimal age to learn a second language? (experimental) 5. What happens in the mind/brain when learning a second language? (experimental-brain imaging) 6. Does learning an L2 “mess up” the L1? (experimental-brain imaging)
1. Corpora CHILDES: CHILDES: Databank of transcripts, audio and video (or all three) of children playing with caretakers Provided for several different languages.
1. Corpora For your corpus determine 1. Spoken or written? 2. Tagged or untagged? 3. How many words? 4. Native or non-native English or both? 5. What kind of texts? 6. If allowed, briefly browse the corpus—what kinds of research questions could be answered by using this corpus?
2. Surveys/interviews Some surveys used in L2 acquisition research: 1. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLAS) 2. Beliefs about language learning inventory (BALLI) 3. Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) 4. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) 5. Myers-Briggs Personality Scale
3. Experimental Most experiments we have talked about in class have also been used to examine L2 learners/bilinguals Experiments we haven’t looked at yet: a. Grammaticality Judgment Tests b. Brain imaging
a. Grammaticality Judgment Tests 1. Carol is cook dinner for her family. 2. Sharon is babysitting for hers neighbor. 3. Tom is reading book in the bathtub. 4. Janice is following a special recipe for the cake. 5. Larry went the home after the party. 6. The man allows his son watch T.V. 7. I want you will go the store now. 8. He came my house at six o’clock. 9. Has the king been served his dinner? 10. Did washed you your car this week?
a. Grammaticality Judgment Tests
Lexically based sentences: The farmers were hoping rain. The farmers were hoping rain. Larry went the home after the party. Larry went the home after the party. The girls enjoy to feed the ducks. The girls enjoy to feed the ducks. Rule-based sentences: The girl cooks dinner for her family last night. The girl cooks dinner for her family last night. Three boys played on the swings in the park. Three boys played on the swings in the park. The girl cut himself on a piece of glass. The girl cut himself on a piece of glass. Flege, Yeni-Komshian, & Liu (1999). Journal of Memory and Language.
a. Grammaticality Judgment Tests Flege, Yeni-Komshian, & Liu (1999). Journal of Memory and Language. Chronological age: r =.68 Use of English and Korean: r = -.56 and.66 Years of residence in the U.S.: r = -.42 Years of education in the U.S.: r = -.92
b. Brain imaging Two types of Brain Imaging A. Electromagnetic Techniques ERP: Event-related potentials ERP: Event-related potentials MEG: Magneto-encephalography MEG: Magneto-encephalography Measurements: ERP & MEG are direct measures of neural activity The activity of groups of neurons can be picked up directly The activity of groups of neurons can be picked up directly B. Hemondynamic Techniques PET: Positron Emission Topography PET: Positron Emission Topography fMRI: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements: PET & fMRI are indirect measures of neural activity Blood flow increases as activity increases Blood flow increases as activity increases C. Aphasia
Examines Electrical Pulses while listening to/seeing language Can examine ways that listeners process language (even violations) See variation of normal and non-normal language processing
Do musicians have an advantage for learning a language? Participants: Adults: 9 musicians et 9 non-musicians Task : is last note / word strange ? A. ERPs Remember : can measure if listeners can “pick up” incongruous language Weak = slight strangeness Strong=strong strangeness
Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Music Congruous Weak incongruity Strong incongruity -10 µV 500 ms
MusiciansNon-musicians OK Weak Strong Language (Cz) Music (Cz) -7 µV (Schön, Magne & Besson, Psychophysiology, 2004) 500 ms
B. Brain Imaging
what fMRI pictures look like...
b. Brain imaging Are your two languages going to be located in different areas of the brain depending on when you learned your L2? Kim, Reilkin, Lee, & Hirsch, 1997 Early bilinguals (childhood, before age 8) Early bilinguals (childhood, before age 8) Late bilinguals (adulthood, mostly after age 20) Late bilinguals (adulthood, mostly after age 20) Task, imagine describing a scenario in one language vs. another Task, imagine describing a scenario in one language vs. another fMRI scans during imagined speaking task fMRI scans during imagined speaking task
b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature.
b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature. Late bilingual brain
b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature. Early bilingual brain
b. Brain imaging What if you heard Korean your first 3 years of life, then were adopted, then are re-exposed to Korean—can you recognize it? Does your brain process it as language? Ventureyra, Pallier & Hi-Yon Yoo (2004): Native French and native “Korean” speakers listened to Polish, Japanese and Korean...
Can you perceive a language you haven’t heard for a long time? No—French group never exposed to Korean perceives voiceless Korean consonants just like Korean group
c. Aphasia How does aphasia affect bilinguals? Ways that languages can be recovered in Bilingual Aphasia (Paradis, 1989) 1. Synergistic 49% 2. Antagonistic4% 3. Successive6% 4. Selective27% 5. Mixed12%
Ojemann and Bilingual Aphasia Dutch-English bilingual—learned English at 23 when came to live in U.S.-surgery at 30
Ojemann and Bilinguals English-Spanish bilingual—learned Spanish at age 6 from Grandmother—had surgery at 21
Ojemann and Bilingual Aphasia Results: 1. There are some areas that serve both languages 2. There are some areas that serve only one language or the other 3. The first language seems less diffuse than the second