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Comparing L1 and L2 acquisition SS 2007. Linguistic knowledge L2 learners know linguistic categories from their native language: Units: words, clauses,

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Presentation on theme: "Comparing L1 and L2 acquisition SS 2007. Linguistic knowledge L2 learners know linguistic categories from their native language: Units: words, clauses,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparing L1 and L2 acquisition SS 2007

2 Linguistic knowledge L2 learners know linguistic categories from their native language: Units: words, clauses, phrases Categories: nouns, verbs, pronouns Sentence types: declarative, interrogative

3 Cognitive maturity L2 learners have cognitive capacities such as analogical reasoning and a theory-of-mind that develop parallel to their linguistic knowledge. (1) Peter thought Sally didn’t know they would come.

4 World knowledge In L1 acquisition, vocabulary learning and the acquisition of new categories cooccur. In L2 acquisition, learners acquire a new phonetic form for a known category/concept. Categorical/lexical differences: argue Unknown categories:Schadenfreude 1. argumentieren 2. streiten Learning a new language involves learning new concepts.

5 Metalinguistic awareness Children have no or only little metalinguistic awareness. L2 learners are able to reflect and to control their linguistic behavior, providing a prerequisite for language/grammar teaching.

6 Learning environment Most children learn language at home. L1 acquisition takes place in various contexts: (1) second language acquisition, (2) foreign language learning.

7 Motivation Children are intrinsically motivated to learn a language. L2 learners can have many different motivations for learning another language: …

8 Modified input Motherese: Special prosodic features: exaggerated stress patterns, exaggerated intonation Many repetitions Many vocatives/attention getters Many questions (often in place of an evaluative statement) Simple sentences and simple grammatical constructions Basic vocabulary

9 Negative evidence CHILD:Want other one spoon, daddy. FATHER:You mean, you want the other spoon. CHILD:Yes, I want the other spoon. FATHER:Can you say ‘the other spoon’? CHILD:other … one … spoon. FATHER:Say ‘other’. CHILD:Other. FATHER:‘Spoon’. CHILD:Spoon. FATHER:‘Other spoon’. CHILD:Other … spoon. Child:Now give me the other one spoon.

10 Negative evidence L2 acquisition can involve both positive and negative evidence. Negative evidence plays an important role in language teaching. Krashen (1982): 1. Language acquisition (in natural environment) 2. language learning (usually in class room)

11 Acquisition The result of language acquisition … is subconscious. We are generally not consciously aware of the rules of the languages we have acquired. Instead, we have a ‘feel’ for the correctness. Grammatical sentences ‘sound’ right, or ‘feel’ right, and errors feel wrong, even if we do not consciously know what rule was violated. [Krashen 1982: 10]

12 Learning We will use the term ‘learning’ henceforth to refer to conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them. In nontechnical terms, learning is ‘knowing about’ a language, known to most people as ‘grammar’ or ‘rules’. Some synonyms include formal knowledge of a language or explicit meaning. [Krashen 1982: 10]

13 Self-consciousness Children use language ‘naturally’. L2 learners are often self-conscious when using a second language: They are nervous and insecure, which is reflected in their linguistic performance.

14 End stage Children reach full mastery of their native language, but native speakers often stop developing: Their language fossilizes. Cognitive explanations: critical period Pragmatic explanation: There is no need to fully master a language in order to communicate. Social explanations: L2 learners are reluctant to fully identify with the new speech community.

15 Errors Both L1 and L2 learners produce errors of omission and errors of commission. However, only L2 learners produce interference errors. That is, L1 learners only produce developmental errors, while L2 learners produce both interference errors and developmental errors.

16 Variability Learner language is highly variable.

17 Developmental sequences Grammatical development often involves the same stages in L1 and L2 acquisition (e.g. acquisition of negation, relative clauses)

18 Formulaic language Learner language tends to be formulaic. Both L1 and L2 language includes a very high proportion of prefabricated chunks and utterance formulas.

19 Grammatical development More car.1;11 More that.2;0 More cookie.2;0 More fish.2;1 More jump.2;1 More Peter water.2;4

20 Grammatical development More car.1;11 More that.2;0 More cookie.2;0 More fish.2;1 More jump.2;1 More Peter water.2;4

21 Grammatical development Block get-it.2;3 Bottle get-it.2;3 Mama get-it.2;4 Towel get-it.2;4 Dog get-it.2;4 Books get-it.2;5

22 Grammatical development Spoon back.2;2 Tiger back.2;3 Give back.2;3 Ball back.2;3 Want ball back.2;4

23 Lexically-specific constructions More __. __ get-it. __ back.

24 Lexically-specific constructions No bed.1;11 No bread.2;0 No eat.2;2 No milk.2;2 No apple juice.2;5

25 Lexically-specific constructions Clock on there.2;2 Up on there.2;2 Hot in there.2;2 Milk in there.2;4 Water in there2;5

26 Lexically-specific constructions All broke.2;0 All buttened.2;3 All clean.2;4 All done.2;4 All gone milk.2;2 All gone shoe.2;2 All gone juice.2;2 All gone bear.2;3

27 Lexically-specific constructions Dat Daddy.2;0 Dat’s Weezer.2;0 Dat my chair.2;1 Dat’s him.2;1 Dat’s a paper too.2;4 That’s too little for me.2;9

28 Lexically-specific constructions Rote learning Grammatical development Item-specific constructions

29 Lexical development Peopledaddy, mommy, baby Animalsdog, kitty, bird, duck Body partseye, nose, ear Foodbanana, juice, apple Toysball, balloon, book Clothsshoe, sock, hat Household objectsbottle, keys, bath, spoon Routinesbye, hi, uh oh, night-night, no Activitiesup, down, back Sound imitating wordswoof, moo, ouch, baa baa, yum Deicticsthat

30 Lexical development 1;2 – 1;3First words 2; words 9-10 words a day 6;014,000 words 18;050,000 words

31 Vocabulary spurt

32 Symbolic nature of language


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