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NEALLT 2012 “Teacher Roles and Practices in Technology-Enhanced Instruction” Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA March 30 - April 1 Presented by.

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Presentation on theme: "NEALLT 2012 “Teacher Roles and Practices in Technology-Enhanced Instruction” Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA March 30 - April 1 Presented by."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEALLT 2012 “Teacher Roles and Practices in Technology-Enhanced Instruction” Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA March 30 - April 1 Presented by Luba Iskold, Ed. D Muhlenberg College

2 Presentation Outline Introduction: Research related to the use of SNSs for SLA Research on development of L2 Identities Why Facebook? Potential benefits and possible drawbacks Instructor roles: researching conceptual frameworks for teaching Cognitive apprenticeship Situated cognition Alternative vs. real identity profiles Classroom examples Academic benefits and limitations Student reactions to class-related FB experiences Conclusions 2

3 Research Related to SNSs & SLA With Web 2.0, current generation of students has developed “new learning styles and qualitatively different thought patterns” (Thorne & Payne, 2005) SNSs “foster the ideal language learning environment, one that encourages interaction and collaboration-the major goals, after all, or of language itself” (Lomicka & Lord, 2009) Learning a language through interactions with others ties in with Vygotsky’s (1978) socio-cultural approach to learning and its later adaptation for L2 teaching and learning Incorporating communicative acts via an SNS “could be as practical for [L2] students as teaching them how to order in a restaurant” (McBride, 2009) 3

4 Research on Development of L2 Identities Performing identities’ is the central activity on SNSs where users “write themselves into being” (Atkinson, 2002) Acquiring an L2 involves the development of a new identity (Pavlenko & Lantolf) CMC affords additive (vs. subtractive in face-to-face) experimentation with multiple identities SNSs are characterized by “radical expansion of possibilities for artistic expression” (McBride, 2009) 4

5 Choosing a SNS: Why Facebook? Student familiarity with this particular SNS eliminates the need for L1 training Ease of navigation and use Privacy settings Ability to set the interface and IM in L2 Convenience: meeting social and class needs in one place 5

6 Facebook for Class: Student Challenges Personal reasons not to be ‘friends’ with someone in class ‘Popularity contest’-may elevate anxiety and cause alienation in some L2 learners Lack of L2 pragmatic knowledge in introductory language courses may make writing and interactions with others difficult 6

7 Facebook for Class: Instructor Challenges Should the instructor be included? Do students find it awkward? Is there a difference between communicating with an authority figure via email vs. a SNS? Do SNSs undermine instructor’s authority? (Mazer, Murphy & Simonds, 2007) Curricular limitations- difficulty to incorporate additional activities into syllabi Time constraints- first learn about the technology and only then design own teaching Resistance from more traditional instructors Development of assessment strategies and grading parameters 7

8 Instructor as mediator, facilitator and guide: Researching conceptual frameworks for teaching 8

9 Cognitive Apprenticeship Apprenticeship - an approach to education used since ancient Greek and Roman eras Two types of apprenticeship: manual and intellectual Cognitive apprenticeship - suggested by Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989): Content is presented in realistic and authentic contexts Sequence of instruction progress from difficult to complex Sociology of instruction focuses on functioning in a social environment 9

10 Teaching and Learning within a Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework Instructor Roles: Providing support Offering hints Giving feedback Asking questions Fading the support as the learner’s performance improves Encouraging Praising 10

11 Teaching Strategies (Hosenfeld et al., 1996) Modeling An expert is carrying out a task so that students can observe and build a conceptual model of the process Coaching Observing students while they carry out a task and offering hints, feedback, reminders, directing attention to specific aspects of tasks Scaffolding Providing support when students are carrying out a task Articulation Getting students to articulate their knowledge or reasoning Reflection Enabling students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert (or peers) Exploration Pushing students into a mode of problem-solving and decision-making 11

12 Situated Cognition (Choi and Hannafin, 1995) Providing enabling experiences in authentic contexts Enabling active learning Cultivating learning process vs. learning outcomes Exploring content from multiple perspectives Understanding how, when, and why to use knowledge in various situations Emphasizing cultural knowledge 12

13 Conceptual Framework for Situated Learning Environments Important components: Context Content Facilitation Assessment 13

14 Forms of Facilitation: Modeling Scaffolding Coaching Guiding Advising Collaborating Fading Using cognitive tools 14

15 Suitability for teaching with SNSs ??? Textbook materials enable learners to access existing representations of content SNSs Enable learners to create their own representations of content Encourage active learning Stimulate active engagement of students in the learning process Provide opportunities to internalize information Require facilitative rather than didactic teaching Facilitation is more continuous and less directive than in traditional instruction Knowledge is better transferred to new real-life situations 15

16 Examples of what was done in Russian Language and Literature Classes 16

17 Examples of Tasks: Develop an imagined L2 identity Provide physical and personal descriptions Converse about daily routines Discuss likes and dislikes, hobbies Discuss events and places Clarify unclear words and phrases Predict and extend plot development Ask clarification questions 17

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21 Alternative vs. Real Identity Profiles Extending oneself by taking the point of view of one’s respective character Choosing among the characters may increase motivation and interest Keeps learners away from overindulging in themselves Student popularity in class may suffer less Engage in further development of L2 characters Use critical thinking and analytical skills to invent new situation and plot developments Employ additional resources to develop characters’ attributes and ensure their authenticity Participate in task-based experiential learning focused on online exchanges between characters Learn how to make predictions relevant to the country where L2 is spoken Creating stereotypes seems less dangerous (vs. collaborating in groups to create a fictitious L2 profile) 21

22 Facebook Post-Survey Questions Standard Deviation Mean Helped me express myself more creatively 0.6293.61 Provided an additional way to interact with peers in class 1.1133.94 Helped me spend more time writing and communicating in Russian 0.9213.67 Motivated me to experiment with a Russian character identity 0.0943.89 Was a “popularity contest” in class 0.2132.06 Distracted me from learning the course content 0.2762.00 Consumed too much time relative to other assignments 0.3272.11 Motivated me to expand my vocabulary in Russian 1.0013.83 Motivated me to look for additional resources to develop my character’s attributes 0.8623.80 My peers in class quickly reacted and commented on my profile 0.2923.07 I frequently updated and checked my Russian profile 0.4122.60 I found it awkward to have my instructor on my ‘friends’ list 0.5191.80 I had trouble being ‘friends’ with individuals in class 0.4121.87 Instructor’s corrective feedback diminished my ego 0.3281.93 I was familiar with Facebook and did not need technical assistance 1.1844.27 I would like to continue using FB for my study of Russian 0.7633.33 22 Note. Judgments were made on 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree).

23 Academic Benefits Students: Learn to analyze and appreciate netiquette Develop critical thinking about social interactions with others Distinguish what is public and what is private Learn to avoid indulging in uncritical narcissism as in “me-me-I-I-I” (Thorne & Payne, 2005) Integrate new knowledge and other’s perspectives into one’s personal experience 23

24 Limitations Because SNSs are used primarily to maintain social bonds, exchanges are brief and frequently use simplified language, spelling, and colloquialisms Writing does not require a “process” approach Texts are scanned rather than read thoroughly Messages with images are perceived differently than plain text 24

25 Conclusions Use SNSs projects that can support course objectives Explain the connection to students Discuss upcoming projects and potential problems Specify expected quality and quantity of communication Develop brief tasks tied to topics covered in class Provide corrective feedback only in individual messages 25

26 Bibliography Atkinson, D. (2002). Toward a sociocognitive approach to second language acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 86, 525-545. boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11. Davis, I. (2005, July 4). Talis, Web 2.0 and all that. Internet Alchemy blog. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from Lange, P.G. (2007). Publicly private and privately public: Social networking on YouTube. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1). Retrieved November 28, 2008, from Larsen Freeman, D. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18, 141-165. Lomicka, L., & Lord, G. (2009). Introduction to social networking, collaboration, and web 2.0 tools. In L. Lomicka, & G. Lord, The next generation: Social networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning (pp. 1-11). San Marcos, Texas: CALICO. Mazer, J.P., Murphy, R.E., & Simonds, C. J. (2007). I'll see you on "Facebook": The effects of computer- mediated teacher self-disclosure on student motivation, affective learning, and classroom climate. Communication education, 56, 1-17. McBride, K. (2009). Social Networking sites in foreign language classes: Opportunities for re-creation. In L. Lomicka, & G. Lord, The next generation: Social networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning (pp. 35-58). San Marcos, Texas: CALICO. Pavlenko, A., & Lantolf, J.P. (2000). Second language learning as participation and the (re)construction of selves. In J.P. Lantolf (Ed.), Mediating discourse online (pp. 331-355). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Sykes, J.M., Oskoz, A., & Thorne, S.L. (2008). Web 2.0, synthetic immersive environments, and mobile resources for language education. CALICO Journal, 25, 529-546. Retrieved December 26, 2008, from Thorne, S. L., & Payne, J.S. (2005). Evolutionary trajectories, internet mediated expression, and language education. CALICO Journal, 22, 371-397. Retrieved December 26, 2008, from Tufecki, Z. (2008). Grooming, gossip, Facebook and MySpace. Information, Communication, and Society, 11, 544-564. 26

27 Contact Information: Dr. Luba Iskold 2400 Chew Street Muhlenberg College, Languages, Literatures and Cultures, Allentown, PA 18104 Phone: 484-664-3516 Fax: 484-664-3722 E-mail: ex.htm 27

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