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The Effect of Evapo-concentration on the Water Chemistry of Prairie Wetlands A PHREEQC Modeling Exercise by Vanessa O’Connor and David Mushet

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189519051915192519351945 19551965197519851995 2005 Data Courtesy of National Climatic Data Center http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/onlineprod/drought/main.html

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WATER DEPTH (M) 1979 1980 1984 1981 1982 1983 199019891988 1987 19861985 1997 199619951994 199319921991 2001 2000 1999 1998 WETLAND P1 Data Courtesy of Dr. Don Rosenberry, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division, Denver, Colorado

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Photo Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota

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Photo Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota

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WATER DEPTH (M) 1979 1980 1984 1981 1982 1983 199019891988 1987 19861985 1997 199619951994 199319921991 2001 2000 1999 1998 WETLAND P1 Data Courtesy of Dr. Don Rosenberry, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division, Denver, Colorado

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SPRING Photo by D. M. Mushet

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SUMMER Photo by D. M. Mushet

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Recharge Flow Through Discharge Wetland Hydrological Functions T8 P1 P11

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Constituent T8P1P11 May 14, 2001 EC μS/cm 15016402150 pH7.448.708.77 Alkalinity66.3371.6449.4 Ca10.688.456.8 Mg6.1148.3111.8 Na1.480.3264.5 K23.4123.740.15 SO 4 2- 21.8710.2756.6 Cl - 4.8414.2863.79 N3.33.43.2 P0.540.150.25 Cottonwood Lake Study Area Wetlands Beginning Concentrations (ppm) Data Courtesy of Dr. Jim LaBaugh, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division, Reston, Virginia

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SO 4 2- Cl - Na + + K + Ca 2+ Mg 2+ CO 3 2- + HC O 3 - Modified from Faure, G. 1998. Principles and Applications of Geochemistry, Second Edition. Figure 20.6. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. P1 P11 T8 P1 P11

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TITLE P1 Evapoconcentration (-95% H2O) SOLUTION 1 May 14, 2001, Starting Concentrations temp 21.2 pH 8.7 pe 4 redox pe units mg/l density 1 Ca 88.4 Mg 148.3 Na 80.3 K 23.7 Cl 14.28 P 0.15 N 3.4 Alkalinity 371.66 S(6) 710.2 -water 1 # kg REACTION 1 H2O -1 52.73 moles EQUILIBRIUM_PHASES 1 CO2(g) -3.5 10 SAVE solution 2 END PHREEQC Program (part 1) One Liter of H 2 O is Approximately 55.5 moles This Code Removes 95% (52.73 moles) of the H 2 O For 25% evaporation, 13.88 moles of H 2 O would be removed. 27.75 moles for 50% 41.63 moles for 75% Etc.

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TITLE Example 4b.--Factor of 20 more solution MIX 1 2 20 SAVE solution 3 END PHREEQC Program (part 2) Solution 2 is now 0.05 kg (i.e., 5% of the 1kg Starting Solution) This code increases solution 2 by a factor of 20 to bring it back to the 1 kg standard For 25% evaporation (i.e., 0.75kg solution) solution 2 would be increased 1.3 0.50kg (50% evaporation) by 2 0.25kg (75% evaporation) by 4

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ConstituentSolution 1Solution 2Solution 3 Mass of Water, kg1.0000.0501.000 Ca, mol2.21E-03 4.42E-02 Ca, mol/kg water2.21E-034.42E-02 EXAMPLE

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Mass of water, kg1.000.750.500.250.05 pH7.447.43 7.417.36 Ca2.65E-043.53E-045.29E-041.06E-035.29E-03 Mg2.51E-043.35E-045.02E-041.00E-035.02E-03 Na6.09E-058.12E-051.22E-042.44E-041.22E-03 K5.99E-047.98E-041.20E-032.40E-031.20E-02 HCO 3 - 1.30E-031.73E-032.59E-035.13E-032.48E-02 SO 4 2- 2.12E-042.78E-044.06E-047.65E-043.18E-03 Cl - 1.37E-041.82E-042.73E-045.46E-042.73E-03 N2.36E-043.14E-044.71E-049.43E-044.71E-03 P1.74E-052.33E-053.49E-056.98E-053.49E-04 Cottonwood Lake Study Area Wetland T8

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Calcite CaCO 3 -1.03-0.81-0.500.001.07 Aragonite CaCO 3 -1.18-0.96-0.65-0.140.92 Dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 -1.98-1.54-0.920.092.22 Gypsum CaSO 4 : 2H 2 O-2.88-2.66-2.37-1.90-0.94 Anhydrite CaSO 4 -3.10-2.89-2.60-2.13-1.17 Halite NaCl-9.71-9.46-9.12-8.54-7.23 Wetland T8 Solubility Indexes (SI)

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Mass of water, kg1.000.750.500.250.05 pH8.708.658.588.478.22 Ca2.20E-032.95E-034.42E-038.84E-034.42E-02 Mg6.11E-038.15E-031.22E-032.44E-021.22E-01 Na3.50E-034.66E-037.00E-031.40E-026.99E-02 K6.07E-048.09E-041.21E-032.43E-031.21E-02 HCO 3 - 6.00E-037.94E-031.17E-022.27E-029.94E-02 SO 4 2- 5.42E-036.98-039.96E-031.83E-021.48E-01 Cl - 4.03E-045.38E-048.07E-041.61E-037.61E-02 N2.43E-043.24E-044.86E-049.72E-044.86E-03 P4.85E-066.47E-069.70E-061.94E-059.70E-05 Cottonwood Lake Study Area Wetland P1

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Calcite CaCO 3 1.431.581.782.112.87 Aragonite CaCO 3 1.291.431.631.972.73 Dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 3.403.694.094.766.30 Gypsum CaSO 4 : 2H 2 O-1.03-0.87-0.64-0.280.52 Anhydrite CaSO 4 -1.26-1.10-0.88-0.510.30 Halite NaCl-7.57-7.34-7.01-6.46-5.19 Wetland P1 Solubility Indexes (SI)

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Mass of water, kg1.000.750.500.250.05 pH8.778.728.668.548.28 Ca1.42E-031.89E-032.84E-035.68E-032.84E-02 Mg4.61E-036.14E-039.21E-031.84E-029.21E-02 Na1.15E-021.54E-022.31E-024.61E-022.30E-01 K1.03E-031.37E-032.06E-034.11E-032.06E-02 HCO 3 - 7.24E-039.59E-031.42E-022.77E-021.24E-01 SO 4 2- 6.16E-037.99E-031.15E-022.15E-028.93E-02 Cl - 1.80E-032.40E-033.60E-037.21E-033.60E-02 N2.29E-043.05E-044.58E-049.16E-044.58E-03 P8.09E-061.08E-051.62E-053.23E-051.62E-04 Cottonwood Lake Study Area Wetland P11

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Constituent Solution 1Solution 2Solution 3Solution 4Solution 5 May 14, 2001 25% Evaporation 50% Evaporation 75% Evaporation 95% Evaporation Calcite CaCO 3 1.401.551.752.082.82 Aragonite CaCO 3 1.261.401.601.932.68 Dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 3.453.744.144.816.31 Gypsum CaSO 4 : 2H 2 O-1.22-1.06-0.84-0.490.30 Anhydrite CaSO 4 -1.44-1.28-1.06-0.700.09 Halite NaCl-6.42-6.19-5.86-5.32-4.06 Wetland P11 Solubility Indexes (SI)

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Photo Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hailstone NWR, Lewistown, Montana Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge Soon After Dam Construction

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Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge Soon As It Appears Today Photo Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hailstone NWR, Lewistown, Montana

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Photo Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hailstone NWR, Lewistown, Montana

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