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Geometry and Art Julie Chatfield Jen Larthey Kristen Olsen Lisa Trenson Fractals Origami Wycinanki Tessellations

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Born in Poland November 20,1924 Father Baught and sold clothes Mother doctor 2 Uncles Introduced him to mathematics Moved to France – 1936 Taught by Szolem Mandelbrot Married Aliette Kagan Moved to United States in 1958 Worked for IBM

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Fractal Geometry He showed how fractals occur in math and nature Fractals – self-similar objects They have a fractional dimension Mandelbrot came up with the name in 1970’s Repetitive in shape but not size Closer you look the more there are

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Spiral Fractals Spiral – a curve that turns around some central point or axis, getting closer or farther from it Two Dimensional Spirals –r is a continuous monotonic function of θ. Archimedean Spiral Hyperbolic spiral Logarithmic spiral Fermat’s spiral Lituus

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Archimedean and Hyperbolic Spirals Archimedean –r = a + bθ –a and b are real numbers –Changing a will turn the spiral and b controls distance between arms Hyperbolic –Transcendental plane curve –Inverse of Archimedean

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Logarithmic Spirals –Equiangular spiral –a rotates the spiral and b controls how tight or in what direction it is wrapped Fermat’s Spiral Also known as a parabolic spiral A type of Archimedean spiral Lituus Spiral Angle Is inversely proportional to the square of the radius

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Mandelbrot Set A fractal that is defined as the set of points c in the complex number plane for which the iteratively defined sequence zn+1 = zn^2 + c with z^0 = 0 does not tend to infinity Created as an index to the Julia sets Each point in the complex plane corresponds to a different Julia set Mandelbrot Set Julia Set

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Generating Fractals: Herter- Heighway Dragon 1 iteration 2 iterations 3 iterations 4 iterations 5 iterations 6 iterations 7 iterations 8 iterations 9 iterations 10 iterations 11 iterations 18 iterations

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Fractal Art algorithmic approach for producing computer generated art using fractal mathematics Movies use computer generated graphics –Computer generated imagery Computer Film Company Industrial Light and Magic PIXAR Machinima

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Origami and Geometry By: Julie Chatfield

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What is Origami ? Origami is a form of visual/sculptural representation that is defined primarily by the folding of the medium (usually paper). Literally, “oru” means fold and “kami” means paper.

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What is Origami’s relationship to Geometry? Kawasaki’s Thereom : This thereom states if you add up the angle measurements of every other angle around a point, the sum will be 180 degrees. A 1 + A 3 +A 5… +A 2n-1 =180 For example, the Traditional Waterbomb base is a folding technique of Origami with a crease pattern that has eight congruent right triangles.

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Humiaki Huzita “In the geometry of paper-folding, a straight line becomes a crease of fold.” An Italian-Japanese mathematician Formulated the 6 axioms of paper- folding

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1.There exists a single fold connecting two distinct points. (p 1 and p 2 ) This is like geometry because two points make up one line.

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2. Given two points, P 1 and P 2, there exists a unique fold that maps P 1 onto P 2. 3.Given two creases, L 1 and L 2, there exists a unique fold that maps L 1 onto L 2. This relates to a perpendicular bisector in geometry. This relates to an angle bisector in geometry.

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4. Given a point P and a crease L, there exists a unique fold through P perpendicular to L. This is similar to the patty paper constructions we used to create the midpoint of a segment.

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5.For given points P 1 and P 2 and a crease L, there exists a fold that passes through P 1 and maps P 2 onto L. This is similar to finding the center of an angle in geometry.

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6. Given two points, P 1 and P 2, and two creases, L 1 and L 2, there exists a unique fold that maps P 1 into L 1 and P 2 into L 2.

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Wycinanki Polish Papercutting By: Lisa Trenson

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Background In Poland, Folk paper cutouts were used in the 1800’s by Polish peasants to decorate their houses Sheepherders cut designs out of bark and leather in bad weather. Paper was used more once it became widely available. Tapestries and painted decorations seen in homes of affluence allowed inspiration which translated into paper cuts used in peasant cottages

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Background continued Few farm houses had glass windows. Peasant farmers hung sheep skins over the window openings to keep out elements. Took sheep shears and snipped small openings in the skins to let some light and air in which were eventually recognized as decorative along with functional.

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Background continued Used by many members of a family and decorated the inside and outside of their houses Hung on whitewashed walls and along wooden ceiling beams to make the house more cheery Originated with Polish, Ukranian, and Byelerussian peasants In Poland, Wycinanki can be identified just by looking at the design

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Design “Wycinanki” pronounced Vee-chee-non-kee is the polish word for ‘paper-cut design’ Intricate designs cut with scissors. Complexity of the designs created by repeating symmetrical patterns and folk motifs inspired by nature –birds, cocks, trees, flowers, small animals, etc. Symmetrical cutouts with nature designs and geometric shapes (a lot of roosters) Layered sometimes to make a more intricate design –different colored cutouts places one on top of another

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Styles of Wycinanki Kurpie Cut: symmetrical design cut from a single piece of colored paper folded one time. Spruce trees and birds are the most popular motifs. Arranged randomly on walls instead of wallpaper. Lowitz: Many layers of brightly colored paper cut and arranged. Express themes or tell stories of village activities. Colors blended visually to give richness and dimension. Displayed tandem style over windows, doorways, and on main walls of one story rural houses.

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Styles of Wycinanki continued Gwiazdy: Circular medallion which includes doily type designs as well as the bird and flower paper cuts that have a symmetrical center axis. Riband: Center medallion with serrated edges sometimes from which two streamers dangle at a slight angle. Color overlays for wall decoration. One of earliest forms.

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Relation to Holidays Originally Easter-oriented, but later became big part of Christmas primarily in Poland. Used on furniture cupboards, cradles, shelves, and coverlets Developed in area north of Warsaw Sometimes used as ornaments for Christmas Replace old designs with new ones during Easter and Christmas. Sometimes makes symmetrical Christmas tree shape

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M.C. Escher and Tessellations by Kristen Olsen

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Self Portrait

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Background History Maurits Cornelius Escher was born on June 17th, 1898 in Leeuwarden, Netherlands He was the youngest of four, and lived with his mother and father. After he got through school, he went to the School for Architecture and Decorative Arts After Graduation, he traveled through Italy, where he met his wife, Jetta Umiker They lived together in Rome until 1935 Escher took a yearly visit to Italy to get inspirations for his work

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“ At high school in Arnhem, I was extremely poor at arithmetic and algebra because I had, and still have, great difficulty with the abstractions of numbers and letters. When, later, in stereometry [solid geometry], an appeal was made to my imagination, it went a bit better, but in school I never excelled in that subject. But our path through life can take strange turns.” M.C. Escher Fish Design (left) Circle Limit IV (right)

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Escher’s Work One of the world’s most famous graphic artists Most famous for his “impossibe structures” Also created realistic pieces He played with architecture, perspectives and impossible spaces Illustrated books, designed tapestries, stamps and murals 448 Lithograpgs, Woodcuts and Wood engravings 2000 Drawings and Sketches

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Escher’s first work featuring division of the plane, Eight Heads His final work, a woodcut titled Snakes, took him 6 months to create, and it was unveiled in 1969.

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Impossible Structures Ascending and Descending Relativeity Metamorphisis I Metamorphisis II Metamorphisis III Sky and Water I Reptiles

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Ascending and Descending

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Realistic Work CASTROVALVA ATRANI

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Tessellations Day and Night Tessellations are created by translating, reflecting and rotating polygons in a plane Escher modified this to create many of his art pieces.

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Bibliography http://www.mcescher.com/ http://www- gap.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Mandelbrot.h tml http://www.exploratorium.edu/complexity/CompLexicon/ mandelbrot.html http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/Welcome.html http://www.origami.com/ http://www.dsha.k12.wi.us/clarice/wyci.htm

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