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Wish Branches Combining Conditional Branching and Predication for Adaptive Predicated Execution The University of Texas at Austin *Oregon Microarchitecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Wish Branches Combining Conditional Branching and Predication for Adaptive Predicated Execution The University of Texas at Austin *Oregon Microarchitecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wish Branches Combining Conditional Branching and Predication for Adaptive Predicated Execution The University of Texas at Austin *Oregon Microarchitecture Lab Electrical and Computer Engineering Intel Corporation Hyesoon Kim Onur Mutlu Jared Stark* Yale N. Patt

2 2 Talk Outline  Problem  Wish Branches  Experimental Methodology  Results  Conclusion

3 3 Predicated Execution Convert control flow dependency to data dependency Pro: Eliminate hard-to-predict branches (normal branch code) CB D A T N p1 = (cond) branch p1, TARGET mov b, 1 jmp JOIN TARGET: mov b, 0 A B C B C D A (predicated code) A B C if (cond) { b = 0; } else { b = 1; } Cons:(1) Fetch blocks B and C all the time (2) Wait until p1 is resolved D add x, b, 1 p1 = (cond) (!p1) mov b, 1 (p1) mov b, 0

4 4 p1 = (cond) (!p1) mov b, 1 (p1) mov b, 0 The Overhead of Predicated Execution If all overhead is ideally eliminated, predicated execution would provide 16% improvement in average execution time A B C (Predicated code) D add x, b, 1 non-predicated p1 = (cond) (0) mov b,1 (1) mov b,0 -2% 13%16%

5 5 The Problem  Due to the predication overhead, predicated execution sometimes reduces performance  Branch misprediction characteristics are dependent on run-time behavior: input set, control-flow path and phase behavior. The compiler cannot accurately estimate the run-time behavior of branches

6 6 Talk Outline  Problem  Wish Branches  Experimental Methodology  Results  Conclusion

7 7 Wish Branches  A new type of control flow instruction 3 types: wish jump/join and wish loop  The compiler generates code (with wish branches) that can be executed either as predicated code or non-predicated code (normal branch code)  The hardware decides to execute predicated code or normal branch code at run-time based on the confidence of branch prediction  Easy to predict: normal branch code  Hard to predict: predicated code

8 8 TARGET: (p1) mov b,0 TARGET: (1) mov b,0 (!p1) mov b,1 wish.join !p1 JOIN (1) mov b,1 wish.join (1) JOIN Low Confidence Wish Jump/Join p1 = (cond) branch p1, TARGET CB D A T N mov b, 1 jmp JOIN TARGET: mov b,0 normal branch code A B C B C D A p1 = (cond) (!p1) mov b,1 (p1) mov b,0 predicated code A B C wish jump/join code B A C D wish jump p1=(cond) wish.jump p1 TARGET A B C wish join D JOIN: High Confidence nop Taken Not-Taken

9 9 Low Confidence Wish Loop X Y N T LOOP: add a, a, 1 add i, i, 1 p1 = (i

10 10 Mispredicted Case 1: Early-Exit X1X1 X2X2 X3X3 Y TTN Correct execution: Early-exit: (Low confidence) X1X1 X2X2 T Y N X3X3 Y N Flush pipeline Compared to normal branch code: predicate data dependency and one extra instruction (-) … X Y N T H H H

11 11 Mispredicted Case 2: Late-Exit X1X1 X2X2 X3X3 Y TTN Correct execution: Late-exit: (Low confidence) X1X1 X2X2 T X3X3 T Compared to normal branch code: pro : reduce flush penalty (+++) cons: predicate data dependency and one extra instruction (-) T X4X4 T X5X5 N Y… nop X Y N T H H H

12 12 Mispredicted Case 3: No-Exit X1X1 X2X2 X3X3 Y TTN Correct execution: No-exit: (Low confidence) X1X1 X2X2 T X3X3 T Compared to normal branch code: predicate data dependency and one extra instruction (-) T X4X4 T X5X5 T X6X6 … T Flush pipeline Y X Y N T H H H

13 13 Advantages/Disadvantages of Wish Branches  Advantages compared to predicated execution Reduce the overhead of predication Increase the benefits of predicated code by allowing the compiler to generate more aggressively-predicated code Provide a mechanism to exploit predication to reduce the branch misprediction penalty for backward branches (Wish loops) Make predicated code less dependent on machine configuration (eg. branch predictor)

14 14 Advantages/Disadvantages of Wish Branches  Disadvantages compared to predicated execution Extra branch instructions use machine resources Extra branch instructions increase the contention for branch predictor table entries May constrain the compiler ’ s scope for code optimizations

15 15 Wish Branch Support  ISA Support predicated execution, wish branch instruction  Compiler Support Wish branch generation algorithms The compiler needs to decide which branches are predicated, which are converted to wish branches, and which stay as normal branches  Hardware Support Confidence estimator Front-end and branch misprediction detection/recovery module

16 16 Talk Outline  Problem  Wish Branches  Experimental Methodology  Results  Conclusion

17 17 Experimental Infrastructure  IA-64 provides full support for predication  Convert IA-64 traces to micro-ops to simulate an out-of-order superscalar processor model IA-64 Compiler (ORC) Source Code IA-64 Binary IA-64 Trace µ ops Trace generation module Micro-op Translator Micro-op Simulator

18 18 Simulation Methodology  Nine SPEC 2000 integer benchmarks  Baseline Processor Configuration Front End  Large and accurate branch predictor (64KB hybrid branch predictor: gshare + local)  Minimum 30-cycle branch misprediction penalty  64KB, 2-cycle latency I-cache Execution Core  8-wide out-of-order processor  512-entry instruction window Confidence Estimator  1KB tagged 16-bit history JRS confidence estimator (Jacobsen et al. MICRO-29)

19 19 Talk Outline  Problem  Wish Branches  Experimental Methodology  Results  Conclusion

20 20 SELECTIVE-PREDICATION: branches are selectively predicated using compile-time cost-benefit analysis AGGRESSIVE-PREDICATION: all branches that are suitable for if- conversion are predicated 16% over conditional branch prediction (w/o mcf) 11% over selective-predication (w/o mcf) 7 % over aggressive predication (w/o mcf) 14% over conditional branch prediction and 13% over selective-predication and 16% over aggressive-predication 12% over conditional branch prediction 11% over selective-predication 13 % over aggressive predication Performance Improvement 24% 8% 14% -4% non-predicated 2.02

21 21 Talk Outline  Problem  Wish Branches  Experimental Methodology  Results  Conclusion

22 22 Conclusion  New control flow instructions: wish branches (jump/join/loop)  Wish branches improve performance by dividing the work of predication between the compiler and the microarchitecture Compiler: analyzes the control-flow graph and generates code Microarchitecture: makes run-time decision to use predication  Wish branches provide significant performance benefits 16% compared to conditional branch prediction 13% compared to selectively predicated code  Wish branches can make predicated execution more viable and effective in high performance processors By enabling adaptive and aggressive predicated execution


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