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S EMINAR ON P ASSIVE & A CTIVE D ESIGN FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS 3 October 2014 Holiday Inn Resort, Penang Part 1.

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Presentation on theme: "S EMINAR ON P ASSIVE & A CTIVE D ESIGN FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS 3 October 2014 Holiday Inn Resort, Penang Part 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 S EMINAR ON P ASSIVE & A CTIVE D ESIGN FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS 3 October 2014 Holiday Inn Resort, Penang Part 1 – Introduction & Overview of Passive Design By Ar Michael Ching Chee Hoong

2 2E NERGY U SAGE I N B UILDING Buildings are responsible for 1/3 of energy related GHG emissions. “Wasteful use of energy is affecting our planet and our environment. If we design, build and manage our buildings so the need for energy is reduced, only then our effort will make a real difference.”

3 3S YNOPSIS Passive design are features which are intrinsic (or part of ) the building form which contributes to good environmental qualities such as provides shelter or insulation against the hot tropical sun or its layout is such that it ensures quality environment for occupant. Active design features are M&E systems which actively ‘intervene’ to ensure good or adequate environmental qualities in a building. Active measures include lifts, air conditioning, mechanical ventilation, artificial lighting etc.

4 4S YNOPSIS P ASSIVE D ESIGN measures are key considerations in the design of building for low energy and environmental performances. The importance of Passive Design is underscored by its precedence over Active Design measures in green and low energy building. P ASSIVE D ESIGN measures (which are principally architectural in nature) aims to embed features into a building which are intrinsically green and low energy in nature. Active measures are design features which requires ‘active intervention’ of building systems (such as air conditioning, mechanical ventilation, lighting systems etc) which will contribute to green and/or low energy performances. Current pressing requirements for green design and low energy in building which are increasingly driven by mandatory building codes (e.g. recent revision to the UBBL incorporating parts of MS1525) requires knowledge of Passive Design as in the skill set of the design architect.

5 5S YNOPSIS FeaturePassive DesignActive Design Ensure thermal comfortBuilding thermal envelope; Natural ventilation Air Conditioning System Adequate and comfortable lighting Natural daylightArtificial lighting Ensure good air qualityNatural ventilationMechanical ventilation Active design contributes to building energy. Passive design aims to reduce building energy and maximise comfort of the users. We therefore need an understanding of Passive Design.

6 6I NTRODUCTION T HIS P RESENTATION introduces the topic of passive design in the following progressive manner: (1)Building Energy (2)Low Energy Building (3)Passive Design (4)Building Energy Components

7

8 8C OMMERCIAL B UILDING E NERGY Typical Energy Use (kWh) Typical Office Building

9 9C OMMERCIAL B UILDING E NERGY Kings Green Hotel, Melaka (3 Star Hotel)

10 10R ESIDENTIAL B UILDING E NERGY What About Residential Buildings? How do we measure Residential Building Energy? In CETDEM study of around 2005, at least 55% of energy use is attributed to fuel for transport.

11 11R ESIDENTIAL B UILDING E NERGY This is total Energy Use per family (middle income) If we are only concerned with building energy, then we should only focus on electricity use.

12 12R ESIDENTIAL B UILDING E NERGY But in many Malaysian home, if designed properly, no AC units are required.

13 13C OMMERCIAL B UILDING E NERGY -- C ONCLUSION 1.Air conditioning = 45% - 60% 2.Lighting = 15% - 25% 3.Utilities = 10% - 30% 4.General power outlets = 10% - 30% These are dependent on building design. This do not depend on building design. It is possible to design a building which lessen energy use of those components listed above. These building components can be said to be “intrinsic” to the building OR part of the building ‘character’. In Commercial buildings, we can conclude that building energy comprise the following:

14 14R ESIDENTIAL B UILDING E NERGY -- C ONCLUSION In Residential buildings, we can conclude that building energy comprise the following (only for typical middle class Malaysian family: For residential building a large part of building energy can be attributed to ‘life-style’ which may be due to socio-economic, cultural and even geographic location in nature. If is even possible for a residential building to be designed without air conditioning. These are dependent on building design. This do not depend on building design. 1.Air conditioning = 0% - 40% 2.Lighting = 8% - 20% 3.Appliances (fridge, oven) etc = 10% - 30% 4.General power outlets = 10% - 30%

15 KeTTHA Low Energy Building (LEO)

16 16B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS Energy Consumption Malaysia has the HIGHEST per capita Energy Consumption among ASEAN countries

17 17B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS Why do we need Building Energy Benchmarks? Building Energy Benchmarks are indicators of building performance which is use as comparison between different building design (uniform gauge for comparison). Building performance benchmarks are important: 1.Indication of building ‘environmental quality’ which may be demanded by the market forces. 2.Benchmarks on which regulatory requirement on building energy performance may be mandated, example: BEI (Building Energy Intensity) defined by GBI for compliance scoring in the GBI environmental rating system. OTTV (Overall thermal transfer value) of building which is a form of building energy performance benchmark which is now mandatory in some states

18 18B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS For Commercial Buildings the following benchmarks by GBI & JKR-BSEEP: Level Office BEI per year Hotel BEI per year Resort BEI per year Retail Malls BEI per year Industrial BEI per year Data Centre (PUE) 1 150kWh/m ² 200kWh/m ² 245kWh/m ² 240kWh/m ² 180kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 190kWh/m ² 230kWh/m ² 225kWh/m ² 150kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 175kWh/m ² 212kWh/m ² 210kWh/m ² 140kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 160kWh/m ² 196kWh/m ² 195kWh/m ² 130kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 150kWh/m ² 181kWh/m ² 180kWh/m ² 120kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 135kWh/m ² 165kWh/m ² 160kWh/m ² 110kWh/m ² kWh/m ² 120kWh/m ² 148kWh/m ² 145kWh/m ² 100kWh/m ² kWh/m ² Low Energy Building (LEO) is any building performance, level 6 and below!

19 19B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS Energy Consumption - BEI Building Energy Index (kWh/m2/year) Cumulative percentile 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% % Source : PTM

20 20B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS For Residential Buildings NO BEI benchmarks, BUT building energy performance based on OTTV is practiced by GBI & JKR- BSEEP: LevelsGBI RNC Version 3 OTTV landedGBI RNC Version 3 OTTV High rise 1 50W/m² 2 46W/m ² 3 42W/m ² 4 38W/m ² 5 34W/m ² 6 30W/m ²

21 21B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS For Residential Buildings NO BEI benchmarks, BUT building energy performance based on OTTV is practiced by GBI & JKR- BSEEP: LevelsGBI RNC Version 3 OTTV landedGBI RNC Version 3 OTTV High rise 1 50W/m² 2 46W/m ² 3 42W/m ² 4 38W/m ² 5 34W/m ² 6 30W/m ² >75% of the Solar Gain by a typical Intermediate single storey terraced house is through its Roof >40% of the Solar Gain by a typical 5 storey block of flats is through its Roof

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23 23B UILDING E NERGY C OMPONENTS Passive design features are features which are ‘intrinsic’ to the building (i.e. is an integral part or character of the building). Examples are orientation away from direct sun, well insulated building, windows to allow natural day-light Naturally ventilated building etc.

24 24B UILDING E NERGY C OMPONENTS Passive design features are features which are ‘intrinsic’ to the building (i.e. is an integral part or character of the building). Examples are orientation away from direct sun, well insulated building, windows to allow natural day-light Naturally ventilated building etc. Active design features are features which are building systems (usually mechanical and electrical in nature) which actively contributes to or enhances the performance of a building (‘performance’ may include energy or environmental quality). Examples are: Air conditioning system Mechanical ventilation Artificial lighting Lifts & Escalators Plug Load & etc

25 25B UILDING E NERGY C OMPONENTS Services Factors affecting kWh usage Parameters in design ACMV Heat Transmission through walls/roofWeather Data Solar irradianceOTTV, RTTV, Sun position & shading calculation Air InfiltrationWeather data Human population/trafficTime-based traffic Lighting loadHuman traffic, day light factor Machine loadOccupancy Pattern Utility Lighting Human trafficOccupancy Pattern Day LightingSun Position, glare control Power/ Plug Load Human TrafficOccupancy Pattern Utility Usage Pattern

26 26MS1525 AND P ASSIVE D ESIGN Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings Now 3 rd edition 2014 incorporated into UBBL in certain states, hence becomes part of a By-law

27 27MS1525 AND P ASSIVE D ESIGN MS1525 has the following Parts 0.Introduction 1.Scope 2.Normative Reference 3.Terms and Definitions 4.Architectural and passive design strategy 5.Building Envelope 6.Lighting 7.Electric power and distribution 8.Energy management and control system

28 28MS1525 AND P ASSIVE D ESIGN MS1525 Section 4 – Architectural and passive design strategy 1.Site planning & orientation 2.Daylighting 3.Façade design 4.Natural ventilation 5.Thermal insulation 6.Strategic landscaping and 7.Renewable energy (principally solar)

29 29MS1525 AND P ASSIVE D ESIGN MS1525 Section 5 – Building Envelope contains the following: 1.Concept of Overall Building Thermal Transfer (OTTV) 2.Sun path and building orientation 3.Shadings to mitigate solar insolation 4.Daylighting 5.Roofs thermal performance 6.Roofs with skylights 7.Air leakage

30 30P ASSIVE D ESIGN F EATURES Passive design features are can be listed as the following design measures: 1.To Orientation - Building Orientation (sun path) 2.To Shade - Building thermal envelope (OTTV) & Roof thermal envelope (RTTV) 3.To Insulate - Building thermal envelope (OTTV) & Roof thermal envelope (RTTV) 4.To Daylit - Natural day lighting by windows, daylighting system such as light tube, light shelf etc. 5.To Ventilate - Naturally ventilated building by cross and stack ventilation

31 31P ASSIVE D ESIGN F EATURES Passive design features are can be listed as the following design measures: 1.To Orientation - Building Orientation (sun path) 2.To Shade - Building thermal envelope (OTTV) & Roof thermal envelope (RTTV) 3.To Insulate - Building thermal envelope (OTTV) & Roof thermal envelope (RTTV) 4.To Daylit - Natural day lighting by windows, daylighting system such as light tube, light shelf etc. 5.To Ventilate - Naturally ventilated building by cross and stack ventilation Building Envelope

32 20 March 2014 Q in T in (22 °C)

33 20 March C ASE S TUDY TO Q UANTIFY THE B LDG E NERGY Building design features which contributes to building cooling energy can be illustrated as follows: Heat gain thro’ walls Solar heat gain thro’ windows Heat gain thro’ windows Air Infiltration (doors/ windows/ cracks) Fresh Air Intake People heat gain Electric Appliance heat gain Heat gain & solar heat gain thro’ roof (RTTV) Lighting heat gain Electric Motor heat gain

34 20 March C ASE S TUDY TO Q UANTIFY THE B LDG E NERGY Case study attempts to find out how much is the contribution of various building components The Model:

35 20 March C ASE S TUDY TO Q UANTIFY THE B LDG E NERGY Building Cooling Energy

36 20 March C ASE S TUDY TO Q UANTIFY B LDG E NERGY Some Conclusion Building façade contributes to about 15% of cooling energy Roof contribution is proportional to the ratio of roof space to total built-up Air intake or how ‘leaky’ a building is contributes up to a whopping 25% to building cooling energy. Electrical equipment inside building contributes a major 30%. This component unfortunately is usually not influence by building designers but by the M&E engineer. However building designed with minimal or less dependency on electrical equipment will be have significant effect on building energy. People or occupant only contribute from 15%-20% of bldg energy. Understanding above and building usage pattern can assist designers in building low energy building.

37 S EMINAR ON P ASSIVE & A CTIVE D ESIGN FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS 3 October 2014 Holiday Inn Resort, Penang Part 2 – Building Thermal Envelope By Ar Michael Ching Chee Hoong

38 38 I NTRODUCTION T HIS P RESENTATION introduces the topic of Building Thermal Envelope in the following progressive manner: (1)Basic concepts in Building Thermal Envelope, MS1525 (2)OTTV and Roof U-Value (3)Site Planning and Orientation (4)Shading (5)Insulation (6)Daylight (7)Natural Ventilation

39 Heat gain thro’ walls Solar heat gain thro’ windows Heat gain thro’ windows Air Infiltration (doors/ windows/ cracks) Fresh Air Intake People heat gain Electric Appliance heat gain Heat gain & solar heat gain thro’ roof (RTTV) Lighting heat gain Electric Motor heat gain

40 40 B ASIC C ONCEPTS - B UILDING T HERMAL E NVELOPE Building thermal envelope is based on the idea of Energy Input / Output to a system (in this case solar energy into building): Q in T in (22 °C) T out (30°C)

41 41 B ASIC C ONCEPTS - B UILDING T HERMAL E NVELOPE Building thermal envelope contributes up to 15% of building cooling energy which make up about 50% of total building energy.

42

43 43T HE C ONCEPT OF OTTV MS1525:2007 CLAUSE 5.2 OTTV applies to building envelope MS1525:2007 CLAUSE 5.5 Roof U-value refers to the thermal transmittance of the roof construction MS1525:2007 CLAUSE 5.6 RTTV applies to roof with skylights

44 44T HE C ONCEPT OF OTTV A design criterion for building envelope known as the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) has been adopted. The OTTV aims at achieving the design of building envelope to reduce heat gain through the building envelope and hence reduce the cooling load of the air-conditioning system. The OTTV…should not exceed 50 W / m 2 MS1525:2007 Clause 5.2

45 45T HE C ONCEPT OF OTTV Assumptions The concept of OTTV is based on the assumption that the envelope of the building is completely enclosed. In the OTTV formulation, the following items are not considered: 1.internal shading devices eg curtains 2.solar reflection or shading from adjacent buildings 3.green walls `

46 46T HE OTTV F ORMULA MS1525:2007 Clause says + Heat Conduction through Windows + Solar Heat Gain through Windows Heat Conduction through Walls OTTV = The formula for the OTTV of any given wall orientation is as follows: 0.2% to 5% 10% to 20% 70% to 85%

47 47T HE OTTV F ORMULA MS1525:2007 Clause says Heat Conduction through Walls OTTV = The formula for the OTTV of any given wall orientation is as follows: 0.2% to 5%

48 48T HE OTTV F ORMULA MS1525:2007 Clause says + Heat Conduction through Windows Heat Conduction through Walls The formula for the OTTV of any given wall orientation is as follows: 0.2% to 5% 10% to 20% OTTV =

49 49T HE OTTV F ORMULA MS1525:2007 Clause says + Heat Conduction through Windows + Solar Heat Gain through Windows Heat Conduction through Walls The formula for the OTTV of any given wall orientation is as follows: 0.2% to 5% 10% to 20% 70% to 85% OTTV =

50 50T HE OTTV F ORMULA α (alpha) = solar adsorbsion value of wall surface WWR = window to wall ratio Uw = U value ofwall Uf = U value of fenestration (windows) W/m² K CF = Correction Factor (due to orientation) SC= Shielding Coefficient of windows.

51 51T HE OTTV F ORMULA 1)Window to Wall ratio 2) Wall & Window Properties (including color) 3) Shading Devices

52 52B UILDING E NERGY B ENCHMARKS

53 53T HE C ONCEPT OF R OOF U-V ALUE –Mass Insulation –mass, thickness and thermal resistance slow down heat transfer –Reflective Insulation –reflect radiant heat –low thermal emissivity Common roof insulation materials

54 54T HE R OOF U-V ALUE F ORMULA U-values are worked out from the Thermal Resistance of the respective materials making up the Roof, similar to that for Walls. U-value is the heat transmission value of the composite roof in W/m 2 K, and is inversely proportional to R, ie, U = 1 / R total The higher the R, the lower the U, the better.`

55 55T HE R OOF U-V ALUE F ORMULA 0.6 Heavy (Above 50 kg/m²) 0.4 Light (Under 50 kg/m²) Maximum U-Value (W/m²K) Roof Weight Group MS1525:2007 Clause Table 9. Maximum U-value for roof (W/m²K)

56 56R OOF C ONSTRUCTION AND T HERMAL V ALUES Metal Deck Roof with Insulation Component (outside to inside)ThicknessConducitvityResistance mmw/(m.K)T/C Outside Solar absorption Outside Surface Resistance Metal Deck (Aluminum) Fiberglass Air space Asbestos Free Ceiling Board Inside Surface Resistance Total Thermal resistance U-value (W/m2K) 0.234

57 57R OOF C ONSTRUCTION AND T HERMAL V ALUES Reinforced Concrete RooF Slab Component (outside to inside)ThicknessConducitvityResistance mmw/(m.K)T/C Outside Solar absorption Outside Surface Resistance Cement sand screed Polystyrene Foam Bitumen Felt Layer Reinforced Concrete slab Cement sand plaster Inside Surface Resistance Total Thermal resistance U-value (W/m2K) Cement sand screed. 2.Bitumen /felt 3.Reinforced concrete 4.Cement sand plaster

58 58I NSULATION T O L IGHTWEIGHT R OOF ROOF U-VALUE (W/m2K) INSULATION THICKNESS (mm) MS 1525 lightweight roof < 0.4 W/m2K

59 59I NSULATION T O H EAVYWEIGHT R OOF INSULATION THICKNESS (mm) ROOF U-VALUE (W/m2K) MS 1525 heavyweight roof < 0.6 W/m2K G Reimann

60

61 61S ITE P LANNING AND O RIENTATION MS1525 Clause 4.3 Generally, the best orientation for buildings is with the long directional axis facing North-South, thus minimizing East-West orientation.

62 62S ITE P LANNING AND O RIENTATION MS1525:2007 Clause 4.3 The micro-climate, shading, radiant temperature, wind direction, precipitation etc should be analysed for the locality.

63

64 64S HADING D EVICES - HORIZONTAL The reasons for shading is to shield windows from the direct solar radiation which is a major cause of solar heat gain (up to 70-85%) Shading can be horizontal / vertical. Vertical shading device.

65 65S HADING D EVICES - HORIZONTAL

66 66S HADING D EVICES - HORIZONTAL MS1525:2007 Table 5 If R1 falls between increments, adopt the next larger ratio. If R1 is below 0.30, SC2 = 1. If R1 is > 2.00, SC2 values shall be the same as R1 between 1.30 and 2.00

67 67S HADING D EVICES - HORIZONTAL

68 68S HADING D EVICES - V ERTICAL Vertical shading device.

69 69S HADING D EVICES - V ERTICAL

70 70S HADING D EVICES - V ERTICAL MS1525:2007 Table 6 If R2 falls between increments, adopt the next larger ratio. If R2 is below 0.30, SC2 = 1. If R2 > 2.00, SC2 values shall be the same as R2 is between 1.30 and 2.00.

71 71S HADING D EVICES - V ERTICAL

72 72S HADING D EVICES - E GGCRATE Eggcrate Shading Devices MS1525:2007 Table 7

73 73S HADING D EVICES - E GGCRATE

74 WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS DIAGRAM?

75 75T HERMAL V ALUES OF B UILDING M ATERIALS Heat flows when outside temperature is higher then inside temp. The thermal property of material at building envelope are measured by its thermal transmissivity value. The inverse of transmissivity is resistivity. The thermal property of building material will be an factor in building energy.

76 76T HERMAL V ALUES OF B UILDING M ATERIALS Normal Brick Wall Normal Brick Wall External Component (outside to inside)ThicknessConducitvityResistance mmw/(m.K)T/C Outside Surface Resistance External Plaster Bricks Internal Plaster Inside Surface Resistance Total Thermal resistance U-value (W/m2K) Conductivity of common brick walls: (a)115mm clay bricks, U=2.6 W/m² °K (b)230mm clay bricks, U=1.9 W/m² °K (c)115mm aerated bricks, U=2 W/m² °K (d)230mm aerated bricks, U=1.3 W/m² °K Conductivity of cavity brick walls: (a)2x115mm clay bricks with, U=1.4 W/m² °K

77 77A LPHA V ALUE OF SURFACE Alpha value of surface measures the impact of surface due to its absorption of solar radiation. A ‘stronger’ color will have a higher alpha value. Alpha value will directly cause the temperature of a surface to rise.

78 78A LPHA V ALUE OF SURFACE SRI =27 Roof Surface Temperature =70.7°C SRI =86 Roof Surface Temperature =49°C

79 79G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES 1.Visible light transmittance % of visible light passing through 2.Visible reflectance; % of visible light reflected 3.SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coeff) or SC (Shading Coeff); ratio of solar incident heat to solar heat transmitted. Glazing Properties

80 80G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES Glazing Properties 1.Visible light transmittance % of visible light passing through 2.Visible reflectance; % of visible light reflected 3.SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coeff) or SC (Shading Coeff); ratio of solar incident heat to solar heat transmitted. 4.U Value; heat transfer property due to outdoor/indoor temp. difference – W/M² - °K 5.R-Value is resistance to heat transfer = 1/U. 6.UV Light Transmittance; % of UV lights passing through. 7.Spectral Selectivity: Ability to react selectively to different wavelengths of light. 8.Glazing Colour: visible light filter affecting colour/tint of glaze. 9.Sound Transmission: ability to transmit sound.

81 Types of Glass There are three generic low solar heat gain glass types in used in Green Building in the market today: 1. High Performance Float Glass; low U and SC Value 2. Tinted Glass 3. Low-E Glass 81G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES

82 Types of Low-E Glass There are three generic low-e types in use in the market today: 1. High Solar Gain Low-E 2. Low Solar Gain (Solar IR Absorbing) Pyrolytic Low-E 3. Low Solar Gain (Solar IR Reflecting) Sputtered Silver Low-E The 1st type of high solar gain low-e is not suitable for tropical climate use because it is meant to allow solar radiation to be transmitted into the building and then trapping it within the building to heat it up. This type of low-e glazing is suitable for cold climates where heating is the predominant energy used in a building. The 2nd and 3rd type of low-e (Solar IR absorbing and reflecting) is perfect for a tropical climate such as Malaysia’s because it stops the solar radiation on the glazing itself by absorbing it or reflecting and reradiating it back outside. 82G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES

83 Single Glazing Low-E These are hard coated metallic coatings on the surfaces of glazing that can be exposed to the indoor climate. The metallic coating on the inside surface reduces the emissivity of the glazing by 70% to 80%, thereby reducing the heat that is radiated into the internal spaces, while allowing heat to be radiated back outdoors. This glazing will provide better comfort conditions for the building occupants due to its lower radiant heat and will indirectly allow the airconditioning temperature to be raised to maintain comfortable conditions. It is also important to note that adding low-e to single glazing only lowers the SHGC effectively if it is on a tinted glass or the coating has a heat absorbing layer. It is not difficult to find single glazing low-e products with a LSG between 1.0 and 1.3. Double Glazing Low-E These are soft coated metallic coatings on the surfaces of glazing that cannot be exposed. These coatings have to be protected in between the glazing. These metallic coatings on the inside surface reduces the emissivity of the glazing by 95% or more, thereby reducing the heat that is radiated to the internal spaces. 83G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES

84 Case calculation Reducing the amount of windows(glazing) on building façade). 84G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES

85 Case calculation Reducing the Solar Heat Gain Capacity (U value) of glazing.. 85G LAZING T HERMAL V ALUES

86

87 87D AYLIGHTING MS1525:2007 Clause 4.4 Conventional and innovative daylighting systems that collect, transport, and distribute light deep into buildings that reduce the need for artificial lighting are recommended.

88 88D AYLIGHTING – D AYLIGHT F ACTOR Conventional and innovative daylighting systems that collect, transport and distribute light deep into buildings and systems that reduce the need for artificial lighting are recommended. The simplest form of description of daylight distribution is Daylight Factor, DF where DF = (Internal Illuminance/External Illuminance) x 100% Refer MS1525:2007 Table 1 MS1525:2007 Clause 4.4

89 89D AYLIGHTING – D AYLIGHT F ACTOR Zone DF (%)Distribution Very bright > 6Thermal and glare problems Bright 3 - 6Good (Not good, glare) Average 1 - 3Fair (Good) Dark 0 - 1Poor (Fair) Based on Malaysian data, the average Daylight level between 10am and 4pm is 30,000 lux. Thus, a suggested DF of 1.5 = 450 lux (Fair); a DF of 4.5 = 1,350 lux (Very very bright!) MS1525:2007 Table 1

90 90D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES LIGHT SHELVES with horizontal shading devices

91 91D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES 2m 4m6m ceiling Light shelf

92 92D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES A.A. No lightshelf and no louvres External lightshelf and no louvres B.B. OUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDE

93 93D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES With lightshelf and louvres C. Lightshelf tilted at 30 o and without louvres D. OUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDE

94 94D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES Lightshelf tiled at 30 o and with louvres E. With outer and internal lightshelves F. OUTSIDEINSIDEOUTSIDEINSIDE

95 95D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT S HELVES Glare risk Preferred Based on DF of 1.0%, ie approx 300 lux 5.7m

96 96D AYLIGHTING – L IGHT P IPES

97

98 98N ATURAL V ENTILATION MS1525:2007 Clause 4.6 Natural ventilation is the use of the natural forces of wind and buoyancy……to ventilate internal spaces and provide thermal comfort with reduced energy.

99 99N ATURAL V ENTILATION

100 100C ONCLUSION – F AÇADE D ESIGN MS1525:2007 Clause 4.5 The building envelope should be designed to provide an integrated solution for the provision of minimizing heat gain, daylight control, moisture management systems, view and passive & active solar energy collection.

101 S EMINAR ON P ASSIVE & A CTIVE D ESIGN FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS 3 October 2014 Holiday Inn Resort, Penang Thank you


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