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Intro to IPv6 The Basics of IPv6 / EIGRP Routing.

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Presentation on theme: "Intro to IPv6 The Basics of IPv6 / EIGRP Routing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intro to IPv6 The Basics of IPv6 / EIGRP Routing

2  128-bit IPv6 addresses are represented in:  Eight 16-bit segments  Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF  Separated by colons  Example: –3ffe:1944:0100:000a:0000:00bc:2500:0d0b One Hex digit = 4 bits

3  Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses.  The first rule is:  The leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written.  Example –3ffe : 1944 : 0100 : 000a : 0000 : 00bc : 2500 : 0d0b –3ffe : 1944 : 100 : a : 0 : bc : 2500 : d0b

4  The second rule can reduce this address even further:  Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consisting of all zeroes can be represented with a double colon. ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0005 ff02 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 5 ff02 : : 5

5  IPv4, the prefix—the network portion of the address—can be identified by a dotted decimal netmask or bitcount or /24  IPv6 prefixes are always identified by bitcount (prefix length).  Prefix length notation: 3ffe:1944:100:a::/ bits

6  All zeroes IPv6 address can be written with a double colon ::  There are two cases where an all-zeroes address is used. 1. Default address, address is all zeroes and the prefix length is zero: ::/0 2. Unspecified address, which is used in some Neighbor Discovery Protocol procedures (later).  An unspecified address is a filler, indicating the absence of a real IPv6 address.  When writing an unspecified address, it is differentiated from a default address by its prefix length: ::/128

7  Equivalent to in IPv4  This address is used when a host talks to itself.  Loopback or Local Host Address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1/128 or ::1/128

8  The three types of IPv6 address follow:  1. Unicast  Global Unicast  Globally unique  Routed globally with no modification  Link Local Unicast  Unique Local Address  2. Multicast  3. Anycast  Unlike IPv4, there is no IPv6 broadcast address.  There is, however, an "all nodes" multicast address, which serves essentially the same purpose as a broadcast address.

9 PrefixDesignation and ExplanationIPv4 Equivalent ff00::/8 Example: ff01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 Multicast These addresses are used to identify multicast groups. They should only be used as destination addresses, never as source addresses /4 fe80::/10 Example: fe80::200:5aee:fea a:20a2 Link-Local Addresses These addresses are used on a single link or a non-routed common access network, such as an Ethernet LAN. They do not need to be unique outside of that link. Routers must not forward IPv6 packets if the source or destination contains a link-local address /16

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11  A typical IPv6 site prefix will be /48  This creates a 16 bit subnet part of the address structure  Allows for 2 16, or 65,536, subnets!  There are no concerns about needing an all 0’s or all 1’s subnet in IPv6!  64 bit host field allows for 2 64 hosts per subnet.  More than 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses per subnet.  Allows of the automatic IPv6 address assignment features to work well (later). 2340:1111:AAAA::/48

12  4 specific subnets to be used inside Company1: –2340:1111:AAAA:0001::/64 –2340:1111:AAAA:0002::/64 –2340:1111:AAAA:0003::/64 –2340:1111:AAAA:0004::/64  Note: A valid abbreviation is to remove the 3 leading 0’s from the last shown quartet. –2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64 /64

13  Exactly the same as IPv4 routing protocols only different.  IPv6 Static routes  OSPFv3 (defined in RFC 5340, OSPF for IPv6)  EIGRP for IPv6  RIP next generation (RIPng) (defined in RFC 2080, RIPng for IPv6)  Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (MP-BGP4 or MBGP) (defined in RFC 2545, Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing, and RFC 4760, Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4)

14  ipv6 unicast-routing global configuration command  Enables IPv6 routing  Required before any ipv6 routing protocol can be configured  ipv6 router rip name command  Enables IPv6 rip routing R1(config)# ipv6 router rip luigi % IPv6 routing not enabled R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# ipv6 router rip luigi R1(config-rtr)#

15 ipv6 unicast-routing interface FastEthernet0/0 no ip address ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/64 ! interface Serial0/0/0 no ip address ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1/64 clock rate ! interface Serial0/0/1 no ip address ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::1/64

16 R1# show ip inter brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset up up FastEthernet0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES unset up up Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES unset up up R1# R1# show ipv6 inter brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1 FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] Serial0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 Serial0/0/1 [up/up] FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::1 R1#

17 R1 #ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0A01::2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms R1#

18 R1# debug ipv6 packet IPv6 unicast packet debugging is on R1# ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0A01::2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms R1# *Jun 19 16:19:13.181: IPv6: SAS picked source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 for 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0) *Jun 19 16:19:13.181: IPV6: source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 (local) *Jun 19 16:19:13.181: dest 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0) *Jun 19 16:19:13.181: traffic class 0, flow 0x0, len 100+0, prot 58, hops 64, originating Jun 19 16:19:13.241: IPV6: source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0) *Jun 19 16:19:13.241: dest 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 *Jun 19 16:19:13.241: traffic class 0, flow 0x0, len 100+4, prot 58, hops 64, forward to ulp R1# un all ICMPv6

19  IPv6 default static route, which is equivalent to IPv4 ip route Router(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 serial 0/0/0 Router(config)# ipv6 route ipv6-prefix/prefix-length {ipv6- address | interface-type interface-number [ipv6-address]} [administrative-distance] [administrative-multicast-distance | unicast | multicast] [next-hop-address] [tag tag]

20 R1(config)# ipv6 route 2340:1111:AAAA:0102::/64 ser 0/0/0 R1# show ipv6 route S 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [1/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 C 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 R2(config)# ipv6 route 2340:1111:AAAA:0101::/ :1111:AAAA:0A01::1 R2# show ipv6 route S 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [1/0] via 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 R2# ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0101::1 Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms R2#

21 ipv6 rip name default-information originate Example: Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip process1 default-information originate

22 EIGRP for IPv6

23 EIGRPIPv4IPv6 Advertises routes for…IPv4IPv6 Layer 3 protocol for EIGRP messagesIPv4IPv6 Layer 3 header protocol type88 UDP PortN/A Uses Successor, Feasible Successoryes Uses Dualyes Supports VLSMyes Can perform automatic summarizationyesN/A Uses triggered updatesyes Default metric bandwidth and delayyes Multicast Update destination FF02::10 AuthenticationEIGRP-specificIPv6 AH/ESP

24  Available in Cisco IOS Release 12.4(6)T and later  EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 are configured and managed separately although many of the commands are similar.  EIGRP for IPv6 is configured on a per-interface basis, no network command is used.  EIGRP for IPv6 has a shutdown feature which is the default state.  EIGRP for IPv6 does not do automatic summarization like EIGRP for IPv4.  EIGRP for IPv6 sues the neighbors link-local address as the next-hop IP address (neighbor table, topology table, routing table).  EIGRP for IPv6 does not require neighbors to be in the same IPv6 subnet to become neighbors.

25  EIGRP Router ID decision steps based on IPv4 configuration: 1.Use the configured value (using the eigrp router-id a.b.c.d EIGRP subcommand under the ipv6 router eigrp command) 2.Use the highest IPv4 address on an up/up loopback interface 3.Use the highest IPv4 address on an up/up non-loopback interface Note: In an IPv6 only environment the eigrp router-id command must be used otherwise the router will not form any EIGRP adjacencies.  IOS lets you stop and start the EIGRP process with the shutdown and no shutdown router mode subcommands.  After initial configuration, the EIGRP for IPv6 process starts in shutdown mode,  To start the EIGRP process it is required to issue the no shutdown

26  EIGRP for IPv6 is configured on the interfaces.  There are no network commands R1(config)# inter fa 0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100 R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100 R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/1 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

27  There are no EIGRP IPv6 routes in the routing table... yet. R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 8 entries D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 C 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 L 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0 C 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/1 L 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::1/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/1 L FE80::/10 [0/0] via ::, Null0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0

28  There is an EIGRP 100 for IPv6 process but the interfaces are not yet enabled for EIGRP IPv6 because the process is shutdown. R1# show ipv6 protocols IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected" IPv6 Routing Protocol is "static" IPv6 Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100" EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0 EIGRP maximum hopcount 100 EIGRP maximum metric variance 1 Interfaces: Redistribution: None Maximum path: 16 Distance: internal 90 external 170 R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100 % EIGRP 100 is in SHUTDOWN R1#

29  The EIGRP for IPv6 process must be enabled with the no shutdown command. R1(config)# inter fa 0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100 R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100 R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/1 R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100 R1(config)# ipv6 router eigrp 100 R1(config-rtr)# router-id ? A.B.C.D EIGRP Router-ID in IP address format R1(config-rtr)# router-id R1(config-rtr)# no shutdown

30  The EIGRP for IPv6 process has been enabled but we don’t have any neighbors... yet. R1# show ipv6 protocols IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected" IPv6 Routing Protocol is "static" IPv6 Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100" EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0 EIGRP maximum hopcount 100 EIGRP maximum metric variance 1 Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 Serial0/0/0 Serial0/0/1 Redistribution: None Maximum path: 16 Distance: internal 90 external 170 R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

31  Notice that EIGRP for IPv6 uses link-local addresses to exchange EIGRP messages. R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 1 Link-local address: Se0/0/ :05: FE80::3 0 Link-local address: Se0/0/ :08: FE80::2 R1#

32 .. R1# show ipv6 eigrp topology IPv6-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(100)/ID( ) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s - sia Status P 4444:0:0:4001::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::3 ( / ), Serial0/0/1 P 2340:1111:AAAA:103::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::3 ( /28160), Serial0/0/1 P 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::/64, 1 successors, FD is via Connected, Serial0/0/1 P 2340:1111:AAAA:B02::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::3 ( / ), Serial0/0/1 P 2340:1111:AAAA:A02::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::2 ( / ), Serial0/0/0 P 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::2 ( /28160), Serial0/0/0 P 2340:1111:AAAA:B01::/64, 1 successors, FD is via FE80::3 ( / ), Serial0/0/1 P 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64, 1 successors, FD is via Connected, Serial0/0/0 P 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64, 1 successors, FD is via Connected, FastEthernet0/0 R1#

33  Link-local address is next-hop address R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 14 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 D 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 D 2340:1111:AAAA:103::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1 D 2340:1111:AAAA:B01::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1 D 2340:1111:AAAA:B02::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1 D 4444:0:0:4001::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

34 R1# ping 4444:0:0:4001::1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 4444:0:0:4001::1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 56/56/60 ms R1#

35 R3(config)# inter ser 0/0/0 R3(config-if)# ipv6 summary-address eigrp 100 ::/0 R3(config)# inter ser 0/0/1 R3(config-if)# ipv6 summary-address eigrp 100 ::/0 R3(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 ser 0/1/0 R3(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 ser 0/1/1 R3# show ipv6 route S ::/0 [1/0] via ::, Serial0/1/0 via ::, Serial0/1/1 Propagate an EIGRP ::/0 summary route to R1 and R2 Create the default static route Verify static route

36 R1# show ipv6 route D ::/0 [90/ ] via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1 C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 D 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [90/ ] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 R1# ping 4444::1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 4444::1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 56/56/56 ms R1#

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