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Omid Efficient Transaction Management and Incremental Processing for HBase Copyright © 2013 Yahoo! All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Omid Efficient Transaction Management and Incremental Processing for HBase Copyright © 2013 Yahoo! All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Omid Efficient Transaction Management and Incremental Processing for HBase Copyright © 2013 Yahoo! All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution allowed without express written permission. Daniel Gómez Ferro 21/03/2013

2 About me  Research engineer at Yahoo!  Main Omid developer  Apache S4 committer  Contributor to: ZooKeeper HBase Omid - Yahoo! Research 2

3 Outline  Motivation  Goal: transactions on HBase  Architecture  Examples  Future work 3 Omid - Yahoo! Research

4 Motivation  Traditional DBMS: SQL Transactions Scalable  NoSQL stores: SQL Transactions Scalable  Some use cases require Scalability Consistent updates Omid - Yahoo! Research 4

5 Motivation  Requested feature Support for transactions in HBase is a common request  Percolator Google implemented transactions on BigTable  Incremental Processing MapReduce latencies measured in hours Reduce latency to seconds Requires transactions Omid - Yahoo! Research 5

6 Incremental Processing State 0 State 1 Shared State Shared State Offline MapReduce Online Incremental Processing Fault tolerance Scalability Fault tolerance Scalability Shared state Using Percolator, Google dramatically reduced crawl-to-index time Omid - Yahoo! Research 6

7 Transactions on HBase

8 Omid  ‘Hope’ in Persian  Optimistic Concurrency Control system Lock free Aborts transactions at commit time  Implements Snapshot Isolation  Low overhead  Omid - Yahoo! Research 8

9 Snapshot Isolation  Transactions read from their own snapshot  Snapshot: Immutable Identified by creation time Values committed before creation time  Transactions conflict if two conditions apply: A)Overlap in time B)Write to the same row Omid - Yahoo! Research 9

10 Transaction conflicts r1r2r3r4 Time  Transaction B overlaps with A and C B ∩ A = ∅ B ∩ C = { r4 } B and C conflict  Transaction D doesn’t conflict Omid - Yahoo! Research 10 Write set: r3r4 r2r4 r1r3 Id: A B C D Time overlap:

11 Omid Architecture

12 Omid Clients Omid Clients Architecture 1.Centralized server 2.Transactional metadata replicated to clients 3.Store transaction ids in HBase timestamps HBase Region Servers Status Oracle (SO) HBase Region Servers HBase Region Servers HBase Region Servers (1) (2) (3) Omid - Yahoo! Research 12 Omid Clients SOSO

13 Status Oracle  Limited memory Evict old metadata … maintaining consistency guarantees!  Keep LowWatermark Updated on metadata eviction Abort transactions older than LowWatermark Necessary for Garbage Collection Omid - Yahoo! Research 13

14 Transactional Metadata Status Oracle Aborted T2T18… LowWatermark T4 Omid - Yahoo! Research 14

15 Metadata Replication  Transactional metadata is replicated to clients  Status Oracle not in critical path Minimize overhead  Clients guarantee Snapshot Isolation Ignore data not in their snapshot Talk directly to HBase Conflicts resolved by the Status Oracle  Expensive, but scalable up to 1000 clients Omid - Yahoo! Research 15

16 Omid Clients Omid Clients Architecture recap HBase Region Servers HBase Region Servers HBase Region Servers HBase Region Servers Omid - Yahoo! Research 16 Omid Clients SOSO Aborted T2T18… LowWatermark T4 Status Oracle

17 Architecture + Metadata Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Abort … LowW … Client Omid - Yahoo! Research 17 Conflict detection (not replicated) Conflict detection (not replicated) HBase rowTSval r110hi HBase values tagged with Start TimeStamp

18 Comparison with Percolator 18 Omid - Yahoo! Research Omid ClientsHBase Status Oracle Percolator ClientsBigTable TS Server

19 Simple API Omid - Yahoo! Research 19

20 Example Transaction

21 Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Status Oracle Abort … LowW … HBase rowTSval r110hi >> | Omid - Yahoo! Research 21

22 Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Abort … LowW … >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> t ST: 25 t ST: 25 | Omid - Yahoo! Research 22 HBase rowTSval r110hi

23 Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Abort … LowW … >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> t ST: 25 t ST: 25 | Omid - Yahoo! Research 23 HBase rowTSval r110hi

24 Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Abort … LowW … >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> TTable.put(t, ‘r1’, ‘bye’) >> >> t = TM.begin() Transaction { ST: 25 } >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> TTable.put(t, ‘r1’, ‘bye’) >> | Omid - Yahoo! Research 24 HBase rowTSval r110hi r1

25 Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Abort … LowW >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> TTable.put(t, ‘r1’, ‘bye’) >> TM.commit(t) Committed{ CT: 30 } >> >> TTable.get(t, ‘r1’) ‘hi’ >> TTable.put(t, ‘r1’, ‘bye’) >> TM.commit(t) Committed{ CT: 30 } >> t ST: 25 R: {r1} t ST: 25 R: {r1} | Omid - Yahoo! Research 25 HBase rowTSval r110hi r125bye

26 Status Oracle Abort … LowW … Client Transaction Example Abort >> t_old Transaction{ ST: 15 } >> TT.put(t_old, ‘r1’, ‘yo’) >> TM.commit(t_old) Aborted >> >> t_old Transaction{ ST: 15 } >> TT.put(t_old, ‘r1’, ‘yo’) >> TM.commit(t_old) Aborted >> t_old ST: 15 R: {r1} t_old ST: 15 R: {r1} Omid - Yahoo! Research 26 HBase rowTSval r1 25bye LowW … |

27 Centralized Approach 27 Omid - Yahoo! Research

28 Omid Performance  Centralized server = bottleneck? Focus on good performance In our experiments, it never became the bottleneck Omid - Yahoo! Research rows/t 1K TPS 10 ms 2 rows/t 100K TPS 5 ms

29 Fault Tolerance  Omid uses BookKeeper for fault tolerance BookKeeper is a distributed Write Ahead Log  Recovery: reads log’s tail (bounded time) Downtime < 25 s Omid - Yahoo! Research 29

30 Example Use Case News Recommendation System

31  Model-based recommendations Similar users belong to a cluster Each cluster has a trained model  New article Evaluate against clusters Recommend to users  User actions Train model Split cluster Omid - Yahoo! Research 31

32 Transactions Advantages  All operations are consistent Updates and queries  Needed for a recommendation system? We avoid corner cases Implementing existing algorithms is straightforward  Problems we solve Two operations concurrently splitting a cluster Query while cluster splits … 32 Omid - Yahoo! Research

33 Example overview 33 Omid - Yahoo! Research Index Articles & User actions Queries Index Data Store Wor kers Updates

34 Other use cases  Update indexes incrementally Original Percolator use case  Generic graph processing  Adapt existing transactional solutions to HBase 34 Omid - Yahoo! Research

35 Future Work

36 Current Challenges  Load isn’t distributed automatically  Complex logic requires big transactions More likely to conflict More expensive to retry  API is low level for data processing Omid - Yahoo! Research 36

37 Future work  Framework for Incremental Processing Simpler API Trigger-based, easy to decompose operations Auto scalable  Improve user friendliness Debug tools, metrics, etc  Hot failover Omid - Yahoo! Research 37

38 Questions? All time contributors Ben Reed Flavio Junqueira Francisco Pérez-Sorrosal Ivan Kelly Matthieu Morel Maysam Yabandeh Partially supported by CumuloNimbo project (ICT ) funded by the European Commission Try it! yahoo.github.com/omid

39 Backup 39 Omid - Yahoo! Research

40 Commit Algorithm  Receive commit request for txn_i  Set CommitTimestamp(txn_i) <= new timestamp  For each modified row: if LastCommit(row) > StartTimestamp(txn_i) => abort  For each modified row: Set LastCommit(row) <= CommitTimestamp(txn_i) Omid - Yahoo! Research 40


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