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1 Chapter 22 Network layer Delivery, Forwarding and Routing.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 22 Network layer Delivery, Forwarding and Routing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 22 Network layer Delivery, Forwarding and Routing

2 2 Network layer

3 3 Direct and indirect delivery

4 4 Forwarding means to place the packet in its route to its destination. Forwarding requires a host or a router to have a routing table. When a host has a packet to send or when a router has received a packet to be forwarded, it looks at this table to find the route to the final destination. Forwarding Techniques Forwarding Process Routing Table Topics discussed in this section: FORWARDING

5 5 Route method versus next-hop method Forwarding means to place the packet in its route to its destination using routing table. Next-Hop Method is technique to reduce the contents of a routing table,the routing table holds only the address of the next hop instead of information about the complete route

6 6 Host-specific versus network-specific method Instead of having an entry for every destination host connected to the same physical network One entry that defines the address of the destination network itself. All hosts connected to the same network treated as one single entity.

7 7 Default method

8 Simplified forwarding module in classless address 8 In classless addressing, we need at least four columns in a routing table. Note

9 9 Example 1: ( )(/0) m3 Make a routing table for router R1, using the following configuration

10 10 Show the forwarding process if a packet arrives at R1 with the destination address Routing table for R1: (/0)( ) Example

11 11 Solution: The router performs the following steps: 1. The first mask (/26) is applied to the destination address. The result is , which does not match the corresponding network address. 2. The second mask (/25) is applied to the destination address. The result is , which matches the corresponding network address. The next-hop address and the interface number m0 are passed to ARP for further processing.

12 12 Show the forwarding process if a packet arrives at R1 in with the destination address Example Solution: The router performs the following steps: 1. The first mask (/26) is applied to the destination address. The result is , which does not match the corresponding network address. 2. The second mask (/25) is applied to the destination address. The result is , which does not match the corresponding network address (row 2). 3. The third mask (/24) is applied to the destination address. The result is , which matches the corresponding network address. The destination address of the packet and the interface number m3

13 13 Show the forwarding process if a packet arrives at R1 in Figure 22.6 with the destination address Solution This time all masks are applied, one by one, to the destination address, but no matching network address is found. When it reaches the end of the table, the module gives the next-hop address and interface number m2 to ARP. This is probably an outgoing package that needs to be sent, via the default router, to someplace else in the Internet. Example

14 Routing  Packet go from source to destination via routers.  Routing means to place the packet in its route to its destination.  Routing requires a host or a router to have a routing table. When a host has a packet to send or when a router has received a packet to be forwarded, it looks at this table to find the route to the final destination 14

15 Routing Table Static :  A static routing table contains information entered manually.  The table must be manually altered by the administrator when there is a change in the Internet.  used in a small internet that does not change very often or in an experimental internet for troubleshooting. Dynamic:  Updated automatically when there is change in the Internet. For instance, they need to be updated when a router is down, and they need to be updated whenever a better route has been found  Routing protocols are needed to create the routing tables dynamically.  A routing protocol is a combination of rules and procedures that:  Lets routers in the internet inform one another of changes.  Allows routers to share whatever they know about the internet or their neighbourhood.  big internet such as the Internet need to be updated dynamically for efficient delivery of the IP packets. 15

16 Routing Table Format routing table for classless addressing has a minimum of four columns. the number of columns is vendor-dependent. Common fields in a routing table: Mask. This field defines the mask applied for the entry. Network address. This field defines the network address to which the packet is finally delivered. In the case of host-specific routing, this field defines the address of the destination host. Next-hop address. This field defines the address of the next-hop router to which the packet is delivered. Interface. This field shows the name of the interface. Flags. This field defines up to five flags. Flags are on/off switches that signify either presence or absence. The five flags are U (up), G (gateway), H (host-specific), (added by redirection), and M (modified by redirection). Reference count. This field gives the number of users of this route at the moment. Use. This field shows the number of packets transmitted through this router for the corresponding destination. 16

17  In unicast routing, there is only one source and only one destination.  When a router receives a packet, it forwards the packet through only one of its ports (the one belonging to the optimum path) as defined in routing table.  Discard the packet, if there is no route. 17 Unicast Routing

18 Solid lines show the communication between routers that use interior routing protocols. Broken lines show the communication between routers that use an exterior routing protocols. 18 Autonomous systems  Autonomous System (AS): Group of networks and routers under the authority of a single administration.  Routers inside an autonomous system is referred to as interior routing (Intradomain).  Routing between autonomous systems is referred to as exterior routing (Interdomain).


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