Presentation on theme: "9I Energy and Electricity"— Presentation transcript:
19I Energy and Electricity KS3 Physics9I Energy and Electricity
29I Energy and Electricity Contents9I Energy and ElectricityMeasuring currentMeasuring voltageEnergy in circuitsSummary activities
3Measuring currentThe unit of measure for current is the amp, which has the symbol A.Current is measured using a device called an ammeter.In a circuit diagram, an ammeter is shown by the symbolAWhen measuring the current through a component, the ammeter is always connected in series (in the same loop) with that component.A
4Experiment 1: Current in series circuit A12Set up the circuit as shown above.Measure the current using the ammeter at positions 1 and 2.
5Experiment 1: Current in a series circuit 3R22Add another resistor into the circuit (R2) and another ammeter after it.Now measure the current using the ammeter at positions 1, 2 and 3.
6Experiment 1: Current in a series circuit – results 322Circuit 1 results:Current at position 1 =Current at position 2 =Circuit 2 results:Current at position 1 =Current at position 2 =Current at position 3 =
7Experiment 1: Current in a series circuit – summary The current at different positions in the circuit, before and after the resistor, was the _______.Current is _____ used up by the components in the circuit.Circuit 2Increasing the number of components in the circuit ________ the current.The current at all points in a series circuit is the _______.same / same / decreased / not
8What is a parallel circuit? A parallel circuit is one which contains a point (a junction) where the current can split (point A) or join (point B).This means that there is more than one path around the circuit.AB
9Measuring current in a parallel circuit Place the ammeter, in turn, at positions 1, 2, 3 and 4.A1A4A2A3Record the ammeter readings in the table.AmmeterCurrent (A)A1A2A3A4
10Current in a parallel circuit For a parallel circuit, the current that leaves the cell is the same as the current that returns to the cell.A1A2A3A4A1 = A4The current does not get used up by the circuit, just the energy that the electrons are carrying.
11Current in a parallel circuit The current splits up at the first junction and then joins together at the second junction.A1A2A3A4The following is always true for this type of parallel circuit:A1 = (A2 + A3) = A4If the bulbs are identical then the current will split evenly.If the bulbs are not identical, then the current will not split evenly.
129I Energy and Electricity Contents9I Energy and ElectricityMeasuring currentMeasuring voltageEnergy in circuitsSummary activities
13Measuring voltageVoltage is the amount of push and is measured in ‘volts’ which has the symbol V.VVoltage is measured using a device called a voltmeter. In a circuit diagram, a voltmeter is given the symbol .When measuring the voltage across a component, the voltmeter is always connected in parallel with (or across) the component.V3V2V1This is still a series circuit.The voltage supplied by the battery is shared between all the components in a series circuit.
14Experiment 2: Voltage in a series circuit Set up the circuit as shown above.Connect the voltmeter across the power supply (battery) and measure the supply voltage.Then connect the voltmeter across the resistance (R) and measure this voltage.
15Experiment 2: Voltage in a series circuit Add another resistor (R2) to the circuit as shown.Connect the voltmeter across the power supply (battery) and measure the supply voltage.Then measure the voltage across each of the resistor.
16Experiment 2: Voltage in a series circuit – results Voltage (supply) = VVoltage (R1) = VCircuit 2 results:Voltage (supply) = VVoltage (R1) = VVoltage (R2) = V
17Experiment 2: Voltage in a series circuit – summary The current is the _______ of electricity around the circuit. The _________ is the amount of push.When two components were put into Circuit 2, the voltage of the supply was the _______ as Circuit 1. However, the voltage across R1 __________ .The voltage across both components in Circuit 2 added to be equal to the ________ voltage.supply / decreased / voltage / flow / same
19Measuring voltage in a parallel circuit Connect up this circuit and measure, in turn, the voltage at V1, V2 and V3. Record your results in the table.V1VoltmeterVoltage(V)V1V2V3V2V3What do you notice about the results?How can you explain this?
21Experiment 3: Cells in a series circuit VRAV1. Set up the circuit as shown above.Connect the voltmeter across the power supply (battery) and measure the supply voltage. Then measure the voltage across the resistance. Also measure the current.
22Experiment 3: Cells in a series circuit VRAVAdd an additional battery to the circuit.Connect the voltmeter across the power supply and measure the supply voltage. Then measure the voltage across the resistance. Also measure the current.
23Experiment 3: Cells in a series circuit – results VARVACircuit 1 results:Supply voltage =Voltage R =Current =Circuit 2 results:Supply voltage =Voltage R =Current =
24Experiment 3: Cells in a series circuit – summary VARVADelete the wrong answer:Increasing the number of cells increases/decreases the current that flows in the circuit.The current/voltage depends on the current/voltage.
25Current and voltage – key ideas In a series circuit, the current is the same in all parts of the circuit.In a parallel circuit, the current splits up and recombines when the branches of the circuit meet up. (The sum of the current in the branches equals the total current.)The current depends on the voltage in any circuit.VoltageIn a series circuit, the supply voltage is shared between the components. (The sum of the voltage across each component is the same as the total supply voltage.)In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each component is the same as the supply voltage.
269I Energy and Electricity Contents9I Energy and ElectricityMeasuring currentMeasuring voltageEnergy in circuitsSummary activities
27Energy transfer in circuits Energy cannot be created or destroyed.In all devices and machines, including electric circuits, energy is transferred from one type to another.When this circuit is connected, chemical energy stored in the battery is transferred via electrical energy to heat and light energy in the bulbs.The total amount of heat and light energy is the same as the amount of chemical energy lost from the battery.
28Energy transfer in electrical circuits 5 J transferred to bulbas light energychemical energy from battery (e.g. 100J)heat energy of bulb95 J transferred toMost of the energy from the battery does not produce light – most of it is wasted as heat!
29Calculating energy efficiency The efficiency of an energy transfer can be calculated using this formula:total energy inputuseful energy output%Efficiency = x 100This bulb converts 200 J of chemical energy form battery into 10 J of useful light energy:Efficiency of bulb = 10200= 5%x 100( )
30What’s the energy transfer? Batteries can power many electrical devices.What sort of energy is electrical energy transferred into in these electrical devices?
319I Energy and Electricity Contents9I Energy and ElectricityMeasuring currentMeasuring voltageEnergy in circuitsSummary activities
32Glossarycurrent – The flow of electricity, measured in amps (A).efficiency – A measure of how much energy is changed from one form to another.potential difference – The amount of ‘push’ or electrical energy there is in a circuit, measured in volts (V).power – The amount of energy that an electrical device uses per second, measured in watts (W).power station – A place where an energy resource is transformed into electrical energy.transfer – To move energy from one place to another.transform – To change energy from one type to another.voltage – Another name for ‘potential difference’.