# Op-Amp- An active circuit element designed to perform mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and.

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Op-Amp- An active circuit element designed to perform mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and integration. (Textbook) High performance linear amplifier that requires a power source to operate. Gain- Amount of amplification produced by an Op-Amp. Gain is independent from the supply voltage (power given for the Op-Amp to operate).

Open-Loop Mode- Function of an Op-Amp when the feedback resistor (R f ) is zero. The Op-Amp operates as a comparator and not as a linear amplifier. Comparator- Compares the –V and +V inputs to see which is greater and returns a result. Bandwidth- The range of frequency at which an Op-Amp will function. (Ideal = ∞)

Input Offset Voltage- Even when there is no input voltage the Op-Amp gives off a small voltage. This can be canceled out by use of the Offset Null pin on the chip. (Non-Ideal) Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)- Ability of an Op-Amp to reject a signal applied to both inputs simultaneously. Slew Rate (V/µs)- Amount of time it takes for the Op-Amp to step to another voltage level. (Non-Ideal)

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) (%)- “Percent Error” of an Op-Amp. Amount of deviation from the ideal output signal. (Non-Ideal) Large Amount of TMD

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + - - IN Offset Null + IN - V Out Offset Null + V Unused Characteristics Input Offset Voltage2 to 6 mV Input Resistance.3 to 2 MΩ CMMR70 to 90 dB Bandwidth.5 to 1.5 MHz Slew Rate.5 V/µs Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage±18 V Power Dissipation500 mW Diff. Input Voltage±30 V Input Voltage ± 15 V Operating Temperature0°C to 70°C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + - + - - IN Offset Null + IN - V Out Offset Null + V Unused Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage±18 V Power Dissipation500 mW Diff. Input Voltage±30 V Input Voltage ± 15 V Operating Temperature0°C to 70°C Characteristics Input Offset Voltage1 to 6 mV Input Resistance.3 to 1 MΩ CMMR70 to 90 dB Bandwidth.5 to 1.5 MHz

+ - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GND Out + V Gain - IN Bypass + IN +Gain Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage±15 V Power Dissipation660 mW Input Voltage ±.4 V Operating Temperature0°C to 70°C Characteristics Input Resistance 50 kΩ CMMR 70 to 90 dB Bandwidth 300 kHz Total Harmonic Distortion 0.2%

+ - 1 2 34 5 6 78 9 Phase Vcc Out GND NFB Filter Bypass In Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage+3 to +32 V Operating Temperature0°C to 70°C Voltage Noise40 (nV/√Hz) Characteristics Slew Rate.5 V/µs Offset Voltage+3 to +7 mV Output Current20 mA

+ - R1 R3 R2 Amplifies and Inverts Input Gain = -(R2/R1) Out In

+ - R1 R2 Amplifies Input Gain = 1+(R2/R1) In Out

+ - In Used to amplify current or buffer signal. +V -V Waste of an Op Amp?

+ - V in The Hardware “If / Else” Statement V Out V ref

Op-Amps have many applications and can be used when a signal needs to be modified, amplified or compared.

+ - + - + - + - In R1 R2 +V -V +V +-+ - LED

R1 + - Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Out

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