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7-5 Microoperation An elementary operations performed on data stored in registers or in memory. Transfer Arithmetic Logic: perform bit manipulation on data in register Bitwise AND, Bitwise OR …. Shift

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Arithmetic Microoperations

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The control variable X selects the operation, and the control variable K1 loads the result in to R1. Fig. 7.6 Implementation

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Logic Microoperations manipulate the bits stored in a register consider each bit in register separately

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Logic Microoperations Mask: allow us to deal with some specific bits R1: 10101101 10101011 (data) R2: 00000000 11111111 (mask) 00000000 10101011 <= R1 ←R1^R2

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Logic Microoperations R1: 10101101 10101011 (data) R2: 11111111 00000000 (mask) 11111111 10101011 <= R1 ←R1ˇR2 R1: 10101101 10101011 (data) R2: 11111111 00000000 (mask) 01010010 10101011 <= R1 ←R1 R2

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Shift Microoperations shift left/shift right incoming bit/outgoing bit

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7-6 Microoperation on A single Register Multiplexer-based transfer if (K1=1) then (R0 ← R1 ) else if (K2=1) then (R0 ← R2 ) K1: R0 ← R1, R0 ← R2

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Multiplexer-based transfer

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Generalization of Multiplexer selection for n sources

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Shift Registers Serial input (SI) Serial output (SO)

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Shift Register with parallel load

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Shift Register with Parallel Load

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Bidirectional Shift Register One stage diagram

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Bidirectional Shift Register

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Ripple counter Structure similar to ripple adder

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Synchronous Binary Counter -Serial gating

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Synchronous Binary Counter -Parallel gating Only one AND gate delay Four AND gates delay

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Up-Down Binary Counter Homework #1 Prove it and draw the logic diagram S=0 up counter S=1 down counter

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Binary counter with parallel load Fig. 7-14 It is a case of the up-down counter in the previous slide. (why? what case?)

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BCD counter A divide-by-N counter (modulo-N counter) is a counter goes through a repeated sequence of N states Fig. 7-15

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Another BCD counter

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Modulo 6 counter

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Homework #2 Problem 7-15 with modified sequence 0,3,2,1,5,4,7 Run the simulation for the designed circuit by using Quartus II Deal with the unused state as don’t care Test the circuit when the unused state occurs (on paper)

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