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March 14.

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1 March 14

2 Question of the Day Who do you believe is the most important Abolitionist of chapter 8-2 and why? Possible answers Garrison: The Liberator- Immediate abolition Douglass: The North Star, escaped slave, Biography, educated Turner: Slave Uprising Walker: Violent Revolution How did southerners react to concerns about slave uprisings and the Abolitionist movement? Restrictive laws- cite examples Gag Rule Happy Slave myth Biblical Justification

3 Honors US Question of the Day
Pass back tests, projects and Jackson Essays. Final draft of essay due Monday, March 18 Complete Chapter 8-1 Notes Explain Project starting tomorrow and create groups. Class Friday in Library

4 Period A Finish Going over Chapter 8-2 handout
Homework: 8-3 guided Reading Begin notes on Chapter 8-3

5 Period B Finish going over chapter 8-1 Notes.
Go over chapter 8-2 handout and Nat Turner Rebellion Homework: Chapter 8-3 Guided Reading. Begin Chapter 8-3 Notes

6 Nat Turner In your own words, explain Nat’s plans to attack whites in Southampton County? Turner plans to invade following an “S” on a map. He will use the slave rest day to catch the whites off guard and attack using stolen weapons. Most whites will be at church allowing slaves to assemble easily What emotions does Nat have before he attacks? Nat is anxious and fearful of what could happen to him. He wonders about whether biblical heroes had his same fears.

7 Nat Turner Why do you think that Nat compares himself to the Biblical heroes Saul, Gideon, and David? He respects these men for their heroics and hopes to share in their divine missions of rebellion. Based on your readings, what different factors led to the initial success of the rebellion? The rebellion was successful because the slaves organized on a day where the slave owners were not around to monitor them. They also had reasons to hold weapons since it was a day they could hunt. They also had a strong leader and a supported cause

8 AGE OF REFORM 1. Ante-Bellum—1820 to 1860 Romantic age
Reformers pointed out the inequality in society Industrialization vs. progress in human rights Primarily a Northern movement Southerners refused reforms to protect slavery Educated society through newspaper and lectures Areas to reform: Slavery women’s rights Industrialization public school Male domination temperance (alcohol) War prison reform

9 2. 2nd Great Awakening---1820’s to 1840’s
religious revival vs. deists Rise of Unitarians---believed in a God of love Denied the trinity heaven through good works and helping others social conscience = social gospel apply Christ’s teachings to bettering society Contrasted with salvation by grace and getting to heaven through Christ Baptists, Methodists, etc. 3. Formed utopian societies = collective ownership

10 The Second Great Awakening
“Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights

11 Charles Finney Charles Finney conducted his own revivals in the mid 1820s and early 1830s He rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestination adopted ideas of free will and salvation to all Really popularized the new form of revival

12 Charles Finney and the Conversion Experience
New form of revival Meeting night after night to build excitement Speaking bluntly Praying for sinners by name Encouraging women to testify in public Placing those struggling with conversion on the “anxious bench” at the front of the church Such techniques all heightened the emotions of the conversion process (born again)



15 (European Romanticism)
2. Transcendentalism (European Romanticism) Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.” “Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.

16 Transcendentalist Thinking
Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: The infinite benevolence of God. The infinite benevolence of nature. The divinity of man.

17 The Transcendentalist Agenda
Give freedom to the slave. Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. Give learning to the ignorant. Give health to the sick. Give peace and justice to society.

18 The Rise of African American Churches
Revivalism also spread to the African American community The Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity“ During these revivals Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks

19 The Rise of African American Churches
This led to the formation of all-black Methodist and Baptist churches, primarily in the North African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) had over 17,000 members by 1846 Beginning in 1830, Began holding Conferences of freed African Americans in the North

20 Educational Reform In 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community funds Middle-class reformers called for tax-supported education, arguing to business leaders that the new economic order needed educated workers

21 Horace Mann ( ) “Father of American Education” children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials children should be “molded” into a state of perfection established state teacher- training programs R3-6

22 Educational Reform Under Horace Mann’s leadership in the 1830s, Massachusetts created a state board of education and adopted a minimum-length school year. Provided for training of teachers, and expanded the curriculum to include subjects such as history and geography

23 Educational Reform By the 1850s the number of schools, attendance figures, and school budgets had all increased sharply School reformers enjoyed their greatest success in the Northeast and the least in the South Southern planters opposed paying taxes to educate poorer white children Educational opportunities for women also expanded In 1833 Oberlin College in Ohio became the first coeducational college. Four years later the first all-female college was founded — Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts

24 The Asylum Movement Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating state supported asylums for the mentally ill She attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjected being chained, kept in cages and closets, and beaten with rods In response to her efforts, 28 states maintained mental institutions by 1860

25 Asylums and Prison Reform
Dorothea Dix also discovered that people were placed in prisons for debt, people were subjected to cruel punishment and children were not treated any different than adults She is responsible for helping eliminate sentencing for debt, ending cruel punishment and getting states to establish juvenile court systems She argues that people can change if they are placed in proper environments and given an education

26 Chapter 8: Reforming American Society
Section 3: Women and Reform

27 Early 19c Women Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor.
Single  could own her own property. Married  no control over her property or her children. Could not initiate divorce. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.

28 Cult of domesticity Acceptable Behavior Among Women The new ideal of womanhood arising from women’s magazines, advice books, popular culture, etc. Stresses Piety Purity Submissiveness Domesticity

29 Piety Purity Female Purity was also highly revered
Without sexual purity, a woman was no woman, but rather a lower form of being, a “fallen woman”, unworthy of the love of her sex and unfit for their company. Belief that women had a propensity for religion; Woman is the new Eve Irreligion in females was considered the most revolting human characteristic Expected to bring the world out of sin


31 Submissiveness Explanation
Quotes on Submissiveness Explanation Men are the movers and doers– the actors in life. Women were to be passive bystanders, submitting to fate, duty, to god, and to men. Clothing emphasized passivity Corsets closed off lungs and pinched inner organs Large numbers of undergarments and weight of dresses limited mobility “A woman has a head almost too small for intellect but just big enough for love.” “True feminine genius is ever timid, doubtful, and clingingly dependent; a perpetual childhood.”


33 Domesticity A woman’s place was in the home
A woman’s job was to be busy at those morally uplifting tasks aimed at maintaining and fulfilling her piety and purity Housework, childcare, sewing, and embroidery Women make the home a refuge for men so that they can escape from the immoral world of business and industry


35 Women are intellectually inferior
Cult of domesticity Making things worse: Idea backed up by inaccurate theories Women are intellectually inferior Smaller brains than men Size of brain to body weight Abandoned when it was discovered that female brain to body rate yielded a higher ratio Brain weight to body height Physically smaller than men Less stamina—they faint more

36 Female Reformers

37 Seneca Falls Conference
July 19-20:, 1848: Seneca Falls, NY

38 Women Abolitionists • Middle-class white women inspired by religion join reform movements • Sarah and Angelina Grimké— work for abolition - daughters of Southern slave owner • Some men support women reformers; others denounce them Working for Temperance • Many women in temperance movement—prohibit drinking alcohol • Widespread use of alcohol in early 19th century • American Temperance Society founded 1826; 6,000 local groups by 1833


40 What is the Seneca Falls Declaration?
One of the most important documents in the campaign for women’s rights. Written in the form of the Declaration of Independence and included a list of complaints regarding the inequality between men and women in the United States. Some of the many grievances include.. No rights to vote. No rights to property No rights to education No representation in government

41 Conference of Seneca Falls
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott called together the first conference to address women’s rights. The conference was called together after Mott was not allowed to speak at the world anti-slavery convention, even though she had been an official delegate. Conference took place in Seneca Falls, New York, July 1848 The Seneca Falls Declaration was signed that day The Seneca Falls meeting attracted 240 sympathizers, including 40 men. Among them, famous abolitionist leader Fredrick Douglas

42 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-Born in Johnstown, New York, November 12, 1815 -Before centering her energy on women’s rights, Cady was active in the abolition movement. - Drafted the Seneca Falls Declaration - Along with Susan B. Anthony, Cady founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association in 1869. - Began the women’s rights newsletter “The Revolution” - Died: October 26, 1902 The prejudice against color, of which we hear so much, is no stronger than that against sex. It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way. —Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

43 Relevancy to its Time At this point in time, people began to challenge societal/class structure Came about at the same time as many other social/economic/reform movements Abolition movement Industrial Revolution The formations of Unions

44 Impact.. Very little progress was made following the Seneca Falls Declaration However… It stood for the goals of the Women’s Suffrage Movement for the next 70 years Brought attention to the issue of women’s rights Eventually led to the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in 1920 which gave women the right to vote

45 S0journer Truth Born Isabella but later changed her name
Sojourner mean Spreader or traveler Illiterate former slave who lectures on women’s rights; Famous speech states “Nobody eber help me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! Ain’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could hear me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man-when I could get it-and bear de lash as well! And ain’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and see ‘em mos’ all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman?

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