2Question of the DayWho do you believe is the most important Abolitionist of chapter 8-2 and why?Possible answersGarrison: The Liberator- Immediate abolitionDouglass: The North Star, escaped slave, Biography, educatedTurner: Slave UprisingWalker: Violent RevolutionHow did southerners react to concerns about slave uprisings and the Abolitionist movement?Restrictive laws- cite examplesGag RuleHappy Slave mythBiblical Justification
3Honors US Question of the Day Pass back tests, projects and Jackson Essays.Final draft of essay due Monday, March 18Complete Chapter 8-1 NotesExplain Project starting tomorrow and create groups.Class Friday in Library
4Period A Finish Going over Chapter 8-2 handout Homework: 8-3 guided ReadingBegin notes on Chapter 8-3
5Period B Finish going over chapter 8-1 Notes. Go over chapter 8-2 handout and Nat Turner RebellionHomework: Chapter 8-3 Guided Reading.Begin Chapter 8-3 Notes
6Nat TurnerIn your own words, explain Nat’s plans to attack whites in Southampton County?Turner plans to invade following an “S” on a map. He will use the slave rest day to catch the whites off guard and attack using stolen weapons. Most whites will be at church allowing slaves to assemble easilyWhat emotions does Nat have before he attacks?Nat is anxious and fearful of what could happen to him. He wonders about whether biblical heroes had his same fears.
7Nat TurnerWhy do you think that Nat compares himself to the Biblical heroes Saul, Gideon, and David?He respects these men for their heroics and hopes to share in their divine missions of rebellion.Based on your readings, what different factors led to the initial success of the rebellion?The rebellion was successful because the slaves organized on a day where the slave owners were not around to monitor them. They also had reasons to hold weapons since it was a day they could hunt. They also had a strong leader and a supported cause
8AGE OF REFORM 1. Ante-Bellum—1820 to 1860 Romantic age Reformers pointed out the inequality in societyIndustrialization vs. progress in human rightsPrimarily a Northern movementSoutherners refused reforms to protect slaveryEducated society throughnewspaper and lecturesAreas to reform:Slavery women’s rightsIndustrialization public schoolMale domination temperance (alcohol)War prison reform
92. 2nd Great Awakening---1820’s to 1840’s religious revival vs. deistsRise of Unitarians---believed in a God of loveDenied the trinityheaven through good works and helping otherssocial conscience = social gospelapply Christ’s teachings to bettering societyContrasted with salvation by grace and getting to heaven through ChristBaptists, Methodists, etc.3. Formed utopian societies = collective ownership
10The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism]Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of EqualityTemperanceEducationAbolitionismAsylum & Penal ReformWomen’s Rights
11Charles FinneyCharles Finney conducted his own revivals in the mid 1820s and early 1830sHe rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestinationadopted ideas of free will and salvation to allReally popularized the new form of revival
12Charles Finney and the Conversion Experience New form of revivalMeeting night after night to build excitementSpeaking bluntlyPraying for sinners by nameEncouraging women to testify in publicPlacing those struggling with conversion on the “anxious bench” at the front of the churchSuch techniques all heightened the emotions of the conversion process (born again)
15(European Romanticism) 2. Transcendentalism(European Romanticism)Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.”“Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.
16Transcendentalist Thinking Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof:The infinite benevolence of God.The infinite benevolence of nature.The divinity of man.
17The Transcendentalist Agenda Give freedom to the slave.Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.Give learning to the ignorant.Give health to the sick.Give peace and justice to society.
18The Rise of African American Churches Revivalism also spread to the African American communityThe Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity“During these revivals Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks
19The Rise of African American Churches This led to the formation of all-black Methodist and Baptist churches, primarily in the NorthAfrican Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) had over 17,000 members by 1846Beginning in 1830, Began holding Conferences of freed African Americans in the North
20Educational ReformIn 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community fundsMiddle-class reformers called for tax-supported education, arguing to business leaders that the new economic order needed educated workers
21Horace Mann ( )“Father ofAmerican Education”children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officialschildren should be “molded” into a state of perfectionestablished state teacher- training programsR3-6
22Educational ReformUnder Horace Mann’s leadership in the 1830s, Massachusetts created a state board of education and adopted a minimum-length school year.Provided for training of teachers, and expanded the curriculum to include subjects such as history and geography
23Educational ReformBy the 1850s the number of schools, attendance figures, and school budgets had all increased sharplySchool reformers enjoyed their greatest success in the Northeast and the least in the SouthSouthern planters opposed paying taxes to educate poorer white childrenEducational opportunities for women also expandedIn 1833 Oberlin College in Ohio became the first coeducational college.Four years later the first all-female college was founded — Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts
24The Asylum MovementDorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating state supported asylums for the mentally illShe attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjectedbeing chained, kept in cages and closets, and beaten with rodsIn response to her efforts, 28 states maintained mental institutions by 1860
25Asylums and Prison Reform Dorothea Dix also discovered that people were placed in prisons for debt, people were subjected to cruel punishment and children were not treated any different than adultsShe is responsible for helping eliminate sentencing for debt, ending cruel punishment and getting states to establish juvenile court systemsShe argues that people can change if they are placed in proper environments and given an education
26Chapter 8: Reforming American Society Section 3: Women and Reform
27Early 19c Women Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor. Single could own her own property.Married no control over her property or her children.Could not initiate divorce.Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
28Cult of domesticityAcceptable Behavior Among WomenThe new ideal of womanhood arising from women’s magazines, advice books, popular culture, etc.StressesPietyPuritySubmissivenessDomesticity
29Piety Purity Female Purity was also highly revered Without sexual purity, a woman was no woman, but rather a lower form of being, a “fallen woman”, unworthy of the love of her sex and unfit for their company.Belief that women had a propensity for religion;Woman is the new EveIrreligion in females was considered the most revolting human characteristicExpected to bring the world out of sin
31Submissiveness Explanation Quotes on SubmissivenessExplanationMen are the movers and doers– the actors in life.Women were to be passive bystanders, submitting to fate, duty, to god, and to men.Clothing emphasized passivityCorsets closed off lungs and pinched inner organsLarge numbers of undergarments and weight of dresses limited mobility“A woman has a head almost too small for intellect but just big enough for love.”“True feminine genius is ever timid, doubtful, and clingingly dependent; a perpetual childhood.”
33Domesticity A woman’s place was in the home A woman’s job was to be busy at those morally uplifting tasks aimed at maintaining and fulfilling her piety and purityHousework, childcare, sewing, and embroideryWomen make the home a refuge for men so that they can escape from the immoral world of business and industry
35Women are intellectually inferior Cult of domesticityMaking things worse: Idea backed up by inaccurate theoriesWomen are intellectually inferiorSmaller brains than menSize of brain to body weightAbandoned when it was discovered that female brain to body rate yielded a higher ratioBrain weight to body heightPhysically smaller than menLess stamina—they faint more
37Seneca Falls Conference July 19-20:, 1848: Seneca Falls, NY
38Women Abolitionists• Middle-class white women inspired by religion join reform movements• Sarah and Angelina Grimké— work for abolition- daughters of Southern slave owner• Some men support women reformers; others denounce themWorking for Temperance• Many women in temperance movement—prohibit drinking alcohol• Widespread use of alcohol in early 19th century• American Temperance Society founded 1826; 6,000 local groups by 1833
40What is the Seneca Falls Declaration? One of the most important documents in the campaign for women’s rights.Written in the form of the Declaration of Independence and included a list of complaints regarding the inequality between men and women in the United States. Some of the many grievances include..No rights to vote.No rights to propertyNo rights to educationNo representation in government
41Conference of Seneca Falls Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott called together the first conference to address women’s rights.The conference was called together after Mott was not allowed to speak at the world anti-slavery convention, even though she had been an official delegate.Conference took place in Seneca Falls, New York, July 1848The Seneca Falls Declaration was signed that dayThe Seneca Falls meeting attracted 240 sympathizers, including 40 men.Among them, famous abolitionist leader Fredrick Douglas
42Elizabeth Cady Stanton -Born in Johnstown, New York, November 12, 1815-Before centering her energy on women’s rights, Cady was active in the abolition movement.- Drafted the Seneca Falls Declaration- Along with Susan B. Anthony, Cady founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association in 1869.- Began the women’s rights newsletter “The Revolution”- Died: October 26, 1902The prejudice against color, of which we hear so much, is no stronger than that against sex. It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way. —Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
43Relevancy to its TimeAt this point in time, people began to challenge societal/class structureCame about at the same time as many other social/economic/reform movementsAbolition movementIndustrial RevolutionThe formations of Unions
44Impact..Very little progress was made following the Seneca Falls DeclarationHowever…It stood for the goals of the Women’s Suffrage Movement for the next 70 yearsBrought attention to the issue of women’s rightsEventually led to the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in 1920 which gave women the right to vote
45S0journer Truth Born Isabella but later changed her name Sojourner mean Spreader or travelerIlliterate former slave who lectures on women’s rights; Famous speech states“Nobody eber help me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! Ain’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could hear me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man-when I could get it-and bear de lash as well! And ain’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and see ‘em mos’ all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman?