3 A LITERATURE REVIEW“A literature review is a body of text and its main goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area. It seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of previous researches".Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.27)
4 PURPOSE OF LITERATURE REVIEW “A literature review is a body of text and its main goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area. It seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of previous researches".The literature review in a research study accomplishes several purposes that are as follows:1- Distinguishing what has been done form what need to be done2- Discovering important variables relevant to the topic3- Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective4- Establishing the context of the topic or problem5- Rationalizing the significance of the problem6- Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary7- Understanding the structure of the subject8- Relating ideas and theory to applications9- Identifying the main methodologies and research techniques that have been usedAdapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.27)
5 HOW TO CODUCT LITERATURE REVIEW There is no one way to conduct a literature review, but many scholars proceed in a systematic fashion to capture, evaluate and summarize the literature.1. Identify the topic2. Locate sources of literature3. Read the literature4. Analyze the literature5. Assembling and organizing6. Writing the literature
6 1. Identification of Topic Chose Area for research2Select field of research3Select topic of research4Refine topic of research
7 2. SOURCES OF LITERATURE Primary Sources Secondary Sources To build on keys points in literature Review Process, we will first consider techniques useful in accessing the literature quickly through databases. The literature sources available to help you to develop a good understanding of and insight into previous research can be divided into three following categories:Primary SourcesSecondary SourcesTertiary sourcesReportsThesessConference reportsCompany reportsSome government publicationsUnpublished manuscript sourcesNewspapersBooksJournalsInternetSome government publicationsIndexesAbstractsCataloguesEncyclopediaDictionariesBibliographiesCitation indexesAdapted from “research Methods for business Students” by Mark Saunders (p.68)
8 Unpublished manuscript sources Some government publications TERTIARY SOURCESTertiary Resource available at Superior can be accessed via following addressOrThrough Superior website by clicking on Digital Library linkNameTypeInternet addressGoogleSearch engineGoogle ScholarSearch engine for scholarly materialYahooEbscohostDatabaseSpringer linkBlackwell synergyOxford pressPublisherUniversity Of Chicago PressReportsThesessConference reportsCompany reportsSome government publicationsUnpublished manuscript sourcesNewspapersBooksJournalsInternetSome government publicationsIndexesAbstractsCataloguesEncyclopediaDictionariesBibliographiesCitation indexesAdapted from “research Methods for business Students” by Mark Saunders (p.68)
9 3.READING THE LITERATURE Read abstract of the article or preface and introduction of bookSkim through the article/ bookSurvey the main parts of the article/ bookRead in detail the selected important partsAdapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.53)
10 4. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS Analysis is the job of systematically breaking down something into its constituents parts and describing how they relate to each other – it is not random dissection but a methodological examination.There are two types of analysis i.e. argument analysis and systematic analysis.1.Arguments Analysis: If a range of arguments is being analyzed, you will need to explicate the claim, data and warrant for each argument. In this way, the identification of the individual and similar elements in a range of items can be compared and contrasted.2.Systematic Analysis: Systematic Analysis is the kind of analysis in which we systematically evaluate the literature on the basis of key ideas, theories, concepts and methodological assumptions and the overall structure and format of the research work
11 4.1 ARGUMENT ANALYSISAn argument involves putting forward reasons to influence someone’s belief that you are proposing in the case (Hinderer, 1992). Whichever way someone makes an argument they are attempting to convince others of the validity (or logic) of how they see the world and convince us that we should see it the way they do.An argument has at least two components: a point and a reason:Making a point (or statement/ conclusion)Providing sufficient reason (or evidence) for the point to be accepted by others
12 4.2 METHODS OF ANALYZING ARGUMENTS There are basically two method to analyze and evaluate arguments intelligently and fairly:Toulmin’s method of argumentation analysisFisher’s method of critical reading
13 4.1.1. Toulmin’s Method Of Argumentation Analysis: Toulmin developed an approach to argumentation analysis that was rooted in the practice rather than the theory of logic.He proposes that an argument can be broken up into a number of basic elements that are as followClaim an arguable statementEvidence Data used to supports the claimWarrant (or permit) an expectation that provides the link between the evidence and claimBacking Context and assumption used to support the validity or the warrant and evidence
14 Example:Following is an example from everyday life. In dry summers consumers are asked and expected to save water through careful and limited use. This is normally taken to mean water should only be used for essential things-watering lawns, filling swimming pools and washing cars are prohibited. The argument for this could have the following structureDataClaimsoCar washes can use upto 250,000 gallons of water in the main summer weeks. This quantity depletes water reservoirs by 20% during a season when there is heavy water usage.Car owners should restrict washing their cars in areas of the country where there is a water shortage (Restriction).WarrantSinceWater is essential and people should not waste it in times of shortageBackingbecauseWater shortage cause inconvenience, are a danger to people and can be costly to consumers.Adopted from “Doing a literature review “ by Chris Hart p.87)
15 4.1.2- Fisher’s Method of critical reading: Fisher (1993) provides a method for a systematic reading of texts. This initial reading technique enables the reader to systematically extracts the main elements (words) of any arguments for the purposes of evaluation.SKIM THROUGH THE TEXTCIRCLE ANY INFERENCE INDICATORS (THUS, THEREFORE etc.)UNDERLINE CONCLUSION ( C ) & PLACE REASONS ( R ) IN BRACKETS < >INDICATED BY WORDS LIKE BECAUSE, SINCE etc.CONSTRUCT AN ARGUMENTS DIAGRAMR = CR1 + R2 = (Therefore) C1 (Interim conclusion)C1 or R3 = (Therefore) C2 (Main conclusion)Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.110)
16 2. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSISSystematic Analysis is the kind of analysis in which we systematically evaluate the literature on the basis of key ideas, theories, concepts and methodological assumptions and the overall structure and format of the research work. In systematic analysis we can do the analysis of single research work but preferably we should go for comparative analysis of two or more studies on the same topic
17 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING A common practice in the social sciences is to make comparisons between the works and ideas of different authors. This usually involves finding common points of interest between, definitions of main concepts, kinds of data collected and the interpretations of findings. The practice can be useful in identifying common areas of interest and differing positions on similar topic areas. Following figure points out the levels of comparison and contrast. The point to note, however, is that comparing theorists has inherent difficulties, mainly to do with the selection of criteria or points of reference that are valid and comparableCOMPARING AND CONTRASTING
18 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING OntologyEpistemologyMoralityPoliticsInterpretationDataMethodologyAxiologyRhetoricPoints of reference formaking a comparison between theoristsTheorist ATheorist BArea of similarityArea of differenceAdapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.131)
19 DEFINING (CONSTRUCTING MEANING) Defining is about placing boundaries around the meaning of a term; it comes from the Latin defenire – to put boundaries around. The boundaries relate to the way in which a term or word is used in a give context. There are different types of definitions, such as formal definitions and stipulate definitions.Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.110)
20 CONNECTION BETWEEN ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS, COMPREHENSION & KNOWLEDGE Select, differentiate, dissect, and break up.Unpacking a thing into its constituent parts in order to infer or determine the relationship and/or organizing principle between them; thereby isolating the main variables.SynthesisIntegrate, combing recast, formulate, reorganize.Synthesis is the act of making connections between the parts identified in analysis. It is not simply a matter of reassembling the parts back into the original order, but looking for a new order. Rearranging the elements derived from analysis to identity relationship or show main organizing principle or show how these principles can be used to make a different phenomenon.ComprehensionUnderstand, be able to explain, distinguish, and interpret.Interpreting and distinguishing between different types of data, theory and argument; thereby being able to describe, discuss and explain in various ways the substance of an idea or working of a phenomenon.KnowledgeDefine, classify, describe, name, use, recognized, become aware of, understand, problem solve.Perceiving the principles, use and function of rules, methods and events in different situations; classify, characterize, generalize, analyze the structure of, and learn from experimentation on the meaning of, concepts and their application.
21 5. ASSEMBLING ORGANIZING LITERATURE USING MAPS Mapping ideas is about setting out, on paper, the geography of research and thinking that has been done on a topic. In other words it is the process of organizing the content of the literature into sections and subsections in order to make connections between ideas contained in different articles, books and work published over a certain time period. It is an effective way of getting overview of the topicTYPES OF MAPSThere are four types of maps that are as followsFeature mapTree constructionContent MapTaxonomic MapConcept MapAdapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p )
22 Concepts/Form of Analysis Feature maps are a method by which the content of many articles can be systematically analyzed and recorded in a standardized format the method entails recording the key features of a predetermined aspects of study to - Produced a summary schemata of the argument proposed by that study - to locate any similarities and differences between other studies on the topic Extract from an analysis of feminist analysis of fragrance advertisement.1- Feature Maps:Author / DateQuestions /ConcernsMaterials/EvidenceArgumentsConcepts/Form of AnalysisMain Sourcesshield, 1990How is meaning communicated through visual images, ads in particular? How do spectators of different genders find pleasures in images constructed for the male interest?Photocopy ads for cologne, 2illustrations, other studiesvisual images communicate meaning through codes/ messages which are produced within the dominant male ideology images reflect/reinforce/reproduced dominant cultural discourse of attractiveness Codes/messages and referent systems can therefore be analyzed using visual images to reveal the dominant ideologyFeminist/structuralism/semiotics male interest ad power of looking objectified/ commodified femaleWilliamson,1978 barthes, 1985 Nichols, 1981 Berger, 1973 Haug, 1987Yanni, 1990how do women enter into the thing-people relationship differently form men how can feminist analysis of ads provide evidence for the power of dominant ideological forms of constraintother studies no illustrationsad images (visuals/text) continually devalue women while maintaining a priority/ privilege to male experience and position of power to define convention codes theories of commodities, the material and symbolic meaning of women is misconceived by ads which misrepresent and objectivity women for the sake of beauty as it were a commodity women are therefore given material valueFeminist critique. Addresses the nature and function of advertising through (1) the structure of representations (2) the process of commodification (3) the power of ads.Jhally, 1987 Berger, 1972 Williamson, 1978 Kappeler, 1986Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p )
23 2- Tree Construction:A subject tree aims to show the different ways in which the major topic has developed sub-themes and related questions. The tree shows how the topic has branched out not the author. Following is the example of subject relevance tree based on the general topic of advertising, showing some of the sub-topics within the general literature.Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.152)
24 3- Content Maps:Content map is a common hierarchal (top to bottom) arrangement of the contents of a topic starting with the conceptual elements, subdivided into segments and further into levels producing a linear flow diagram.Following is an example of content map developed by Tesch (1990) for partial classification of qualitative research.Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.153)
25 4- Taxonomic Maps:Closely related to content maps are taxonomic maps (sometimes called elaboration maps), that aims to show how a range of things can be placed into a general class. They also show differences between objects within the general class.Following is the example of taxonomy of passenger carsAdapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.154)
26 5- Concept Maps:In order to turn declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge we often need to now the linkages between concepts and processes. A concept map can be useful because it can be constructed to show the relationships between ideas ad practice and include, if necessary, reference to relevant examples. Following figure shows some of the processes involved in undertaking and analysis of qualitative data. Note how different concepts can be linked in multiple ways and how emphasis can be given to some links. Also note the cause and effect or problem and solution structure that is an implicit assumption underlying all concept maps.Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.154)
27 6. WRITING THE LITERATURE REVIEW We have already studied that in quantitative and mixed method literature review plays an important role and its is usually composed in five parts.IntroductionReview on independent variableReview on dependent variableReview on the relationship of independent and dependent variablesSummaryAdapted from by Creswell, 2003 (p.45)
29 Course AimsTo introduce the basic philosophical and methodological approaches currently used as a foundation for research in Business, Management and Social Sciences.To discuss critically the conventional distinction between “quantitative and qualitative” research and its usefulness in planning and evaluating research.To develop the skills of literature review and critical analysis of research reports by giving practical exposure to locating literature and reviewing critically by argumentation, reading analysis and mapping.To provide a comprehensive knowledge about the introduction, purpose statement, research questions, hypothesis, use of theory limitations and significance for the development of rationale in designing research.To provide a comprehensive understanding about quantitative research and develop their skills in different areas like operationalization, quantitative methods and ensure the reliability and validity of the data.To make a clear understanding for the use of SPSS (which is related to their previous course “Quantitative Techniques”).To provide a comprehensive understanding about qualitative research and develop their skills in using valid and reliable qualitative methods.To discuss various ways of designing research which focuses on the purpose of research, the use of theory and the research significance, its limitations and delimitations.To present a range of ethical issues relevant to the conduct and publication of research.To give an introduction of Nvivo (for qualitative data).
30 Classification Topics Knowledge and Comprehension At the end of this module, successful students will be able to demonstrate the knowledge of:A range of methodological approaches and philosophical assumptions to organizational and professional research.Ways of formulating and defining business and management research problems, significance or limitations.Understanding of Literature Review and critical AnalysisIssues in, and methods of, research design.The importance of ethics and values in business research.The requirements for effective analysis and interpretation of quantitative, qualitative data and mixed methods.Application and SkillsAt the end of this module, the successful students will be able to:Make informed decisions about different research approaches, strategies, design and methods which are relevant to different purposesTo write a literature review related to business research problems.To conduct interviews and interpret them to develop results.To conduct surveys and develop analysis & interpretation of them.Write a successful research proposal which outlines and evaluates the research process and method(s) most appropriate to investigate the student’s own research questions/subject.Analysis and SynthesisAt the end of this module successful students will be able to:Critically evaluate the range of qualitative and quantitative data and information collection strategies in a meaningful manner to solve problems.To analyze the research and findings of other people.Analyze the quantitative & Qualitative data for interpretation of results.
31 TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR AN APPROVED RESEARCH PROBLEM FINAL PROJECTTO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR AN APPROVED RESEARCH PROBLEMGuidelines and Assessment Criteria(a) Abstract(b) Aims of the investigation:Including the need for / value of the research(c) Problem formulation:Relevant social / business contextMain research questions / hypothesesBrief summary of theoretical / conceptual bases of the projectTarget population of interest(d) Selective literature review:Brief summary (max words) of the areas to be addressed, and of illustrative resources, including selective bibliography in recognized format(e) Initial choice of methodological approach * and research strategy (ies)(f) Fieldwork:An outline (only) of plans for methods of data production / sources, and for negotiating access
32 (g) Research design:Outline of plans for indicators / descriptors for key conceptsMethods for ruling out alternative explanations (or descriptions)Sampling procedures / selection of cases (organizations or individuals)(h) Discussion of issues of validity and reliability – or alternative criteria for research quality (to be clearly specified)(i) Ethical and other commitments:Brief discussion of any major ethical or legal dilemma and political or organizational constraints etc.
33 PresentationThe aim of the presentation is to allow students to gain constructive feedback from their peers regarding their comparative reports as well as allowing them to demonstrate their presentation skills. The structure of the presentation will largely mirror the structure of the report and thus contain the comparison on the basis of three basic research approaches i.e. qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. Points to consider when marking presentations are:Timing of presentation.Clarity of concepts.Structure of the presentation.Quality of overheads, handouts etc.Application of theory to practice.Ability to answer questions effectively.Use of sources of information.
34 Criteria of Assessment Clarity and conciseness of your specification of various aspects of the proposal.The relation of details of your research design specifically to the aims of your particular study (That is, credit will not be given for the production of generalities about research design that are unrelated to any particular study).Justification of key decisions made.Completeness of coverage of guidelines.Weighting: 20 MarksGuidelines (a,b,c) (5% + 5% + 15%) 25%Guidelines (d,e) %Guidelines (f,g) %Guideline (h) %Presentation (including bibliography in a recognized format) 10%Length:Maximum 6000 words, plus references (at most 10) in selective bibliography (based on selective literature review).Weightage: 30% (project: 20%, presentation: 10%)