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INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURES Chapter 5. Introduction  High-level languages hide it  So, why do we need?  Efficient programming  Understanding the.

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Presentation on theme: "INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURES Chapter 5. Introduction  High-level languages hide it  So, why do we need?  Efficient programming  Understanding the."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction  High-level languages hide it  So, why do we need?  Efficient programming  Understanding the machine architecture

3 Instruction Formats  Architectures can be differenced by the following:  Number of bits (16, 32, 64)  Operand storage in CPU (data in stack or registers)  Number of explicit operands per instruction (0-3)  Operand location (register-to-register, register-to- memory, memory-to-memory)  Operations (types and access restrictions)  Type and size of operands

4 Designing decisions for instruction sets  Define the instruction set format is very important  Factors to consider:  Amount of space required by program  Complexity of the instruction set  Length of instructions  Number of instructions

5 Continuing…  How to choose the design?  Short instructions are typically better (but reduces possibilities)  Instructions of fixed length (easy to decode but waste space)  Byte addressable  Fixed length does not imply fixed number of operands  Addressing modes  Little or big endian?  Registers (how many, and how to use)

6 Little versus big endian  The way that computer stores bytes from multiple- byte data element  Little endian = store lower significant byte at lower address)  Big endian = guess…  UNIX usually big, PCs usually little  Intel always little, Motorola always big

7 OK, but what does it mean? Byte 3Byte 2Byte 1Byte 0  If you have an integer: Base address +Little endianBig endian 0Byte 0Byte 3 1Byte 1Byte 2 2 Byte 1 3Byte 3Byte 0

8 Pros | Cons CharacteristicLittle endianBig endian Negative valuesKnow the size and skip bytes to find out Just look to the first byte String operations---A bit faster Bitmap---Uses the same idea (most significant bits on the lower addresses) 32-bit to 16 bit address conversion ---Requires addition High precision arithmeticFaster and easier--- Allow words to be written in non-word address boundaries Yes, do not waste space and makes programming easy No, wastes space. Networks are big endianHave to convert“Speak” same language

9 Internal storage in CPU  Stack  Use stack to execute instructions  Operands found on top  Don’t allow random access (Of course, it is a stack)  Accumulator  Minimize complexity  Short Instructions  General Purpose Register (GPR)  Most widely accepted  Fast  Easy to deal

10 Continuing…  GPR architecture can be broken in three  Memory-memory Digital Equipment’s VAX  Register-memory Intel, Motorola  Load-store Data must be stored in register before operations are performed SPARC, MIPS, Alpha, PowerPC

11 Number of operands and instruction length  Fixed length  Wastes space but is fast  Variable length  More complex, but saves storage space  Instruction need to be aligned with words  Common formats  OPCODE only  OPCODE + 1 address (usually a memory)  OPCODE + 2 addresses (usually registers, or one register, one memory)  OPCODE + 3 addresses (usually registers, or combination of registers and memory)

12 Continuing…  Machine instructions that have no operands must have a stack (where operations are made from top) to perform a operation that require one or two operands Instructions READ STO X READ STO Y LOAD X LOAD Y ADD STO Z StackPOSMemory X Y Z 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 2 2 5 5 3 3

13 Continuing…  The same algorithm before would be like this according to the number of addresses: Note that in the examples I presume that Z is initially 0 Three addressesTwo addressesOne address READ X READ Y ADD Z, X, YADD Z, XLOAD X ADD Z, YADD Z LOAD Y ADD Z

14 Expanding opcodes  If you have a machine with “short opcodes”, you can use part of the “memory addressing bits” to expand opcodes (some opcodes do not need addresses), here is an example:  You have a machine with 16-bit instructions and 16 registers, you can use 4 bits to opcodes with 12 bits to addresses or 8 bits to opcodes and 8 bits to addresses or 12 bits to opcodes and 4 bits to address or only opcodes

15 Continuing…  15 3-addresses codes (4 bits to opcodes, 12 bits to addresses)  0000R1R2R3  1110R1R2R3  14 2-addresses codes (8 bits to opcodes, 8 bits to addresses)  11110000R1R2  11111101R1R2  31 1-addresses codes (12 bits to opcodes, 4 bits to addresses)  111111100000R1  111111111110R2  16 0-addresses codes (16 bits to opcodes, 0 bits to addresses)  1111111111110000  1111111111111111

16 Instruction types  Data movement  Arithmetic  Boolean  Bit manipulation  I/O  Transfer of control  Special purpose

17 Data Movement  Most frequently used instructions. Data is moved from memory into registers, registers to registers, registers to memory.  May be instructions to move between memory and register, one only for registers  RISC limits the instructions that can move to memory  Many machines have different instructions to bytes and words  MOVE, LOAD, PUSH, POP, EXCHANGE and variations

18 Arithmetic operations  Instruction that deal with numbers (integer and float)  Many instructions sets provides different instructions for different data sizes (improve performance)  Many times operands are implied  Use the flag register (to report errors like overflow, underflow, use as carry)  ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, DIVIDE, INCREMENT, DECREMENT, NEGATE

19 Boolean logic instructions  Perform Boolean operations  Allow bits to set, cleared and complemented  Commonly used to control I/O devices  Affect flag register  AND, NOT, OR, XOR, TEST, COMPARE

20 Bit manipulation instructions  Used for setting and resetting a bit or a group of bits within a given data word  Include arithmetic and logical SHIFT and ROTATE instructions (to left and right)

21 Input/Output instructions  Input – transports data from a device or port to a register or memory  Output – transports data from register or memory to a device or port  May be different for characters and numbers

22 Instructions for transfer of control  Alter the normal sequence of program execution  Branches, skips, procedure calls, returns, program termination  Jump, conditional jump

23 Special purpose instructions  String processing, high-level language support, protection, flag control, word/byte conversions, cache management, register access, address calculation, no-ops, any other instructions that don’t fit in the previously mentioned

24 Instruction set orthogonality  Don’t create instructions that duplicate other instructions, that would be a waste  Makes writing a language compiler easier, but have quite long words, with means the programs will be bigger and use more memory

25 Addressing  Data types  Addressing modes

26 Data types  Numeric data (integers and floating point numbers)  Signed / Unsigned  Various lengths  Might be different instructions for different lengths  Nonnumeric (strings, Booleans, pointers)  String Copy, move, search, modify  Boolean AND, OR, XOR, NOT  Pointers are addresses in memory

27 Address modes  Allow specify where instructions operands are located  Immediate addressing  Direct addressing  Register addressing  Indirect addressing  Indexed addressing  Stack addressing (the operand is assumed to be on stack)

28 Immediate addressing  Data to be operated is part of instruction  Very fast because it is included with instruction  Not very flexible because it is loaded at compile time

29 Direct addressing  The value to be referenced is obtained by specifying its memory address directly to instruction  Fast, not part of instruction, but the value in the address is loaded to the register  Much more flexible

30 Register addressing  A register, instead of memory, is used to specify the operand.  Very similar to direct addressing but the address is from a register, so it is faster

31 Indirect addressing  Very powerful  Very flexible  Bits in address field specify a memory address of a pointer, the actual address of the operand is found by going to the address referenced by the pointer  There is also register indirect addressing, which is quite similar, but uses a register to point the data

32 Indexed addressing  There is an index register and the address of the data we want is found by the sum of the value in the register to the address in the instruction  There is also based addressing, which is very similar, but the opposite, the register holds the base address and the value given is the index  Very useful to access arrays, and strings

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