Presentation on theme: "Situational Theory of Leadership"— Presentation transcript:
1Situational Theory of Leadership An approach to leadership advocating the leaders understand their own behavior, the behavior of their subordinates, and the situation before utilizing a particular leadership style. This approach requires diagnostic skills in human behavior on the part of the leader.Match leadership behavior to subordinates needs
2Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Slide 1 of 2 A situational leadership theory that emphasizes followers and their level of maturity. The leader must properly judge or intuitively know followers’ maturity level and then use a leadership style that fits the level.
6The Contingency Leadership Model Description of the ModelThe contingency model of leadership effectiveness was developed by Fiedler and postulates that the performance of groups is dependent on the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness.Leadership style is measured by the Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC).
7Fiedler’s Situational Variables and Their Preferred Leadership Styles Situational CharacteristicsIIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIILeader-member relationsGoodGoodGoodGoodPoorPoorPoorPoorTask structureHighHighLowLowHighHighLowLowPosition powerStrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeakTask-OrientedTask-OrientedRelationship-OrientedPreferred leadership styleVery FavorableVery Unfavorable
8Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Leader-member relations: refers to group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and acceptance of the leader.Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals.Position power: is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.
10Path-Goal Leadership Model Description of the ModelA theory that suggests it is necessary for a leader to influence the followers’ perception of work goals, self-development goals, and paths to goal attainment. The foundation for the model is the expectancy motivation theory
11Path-Goal TheoryIncrease subordinates' motivation to attain personal and organizational goals by--1. Clarifying the subordinates' path to the available rewards2. Increasing the rewards that they valuePath clarification means the leader helps subordinates learn the behaviors that lead to task accomplishment and rewards.
12Three Contingencies of Path-Goal Leader behavior and styleSituational contingenciesUse of rewards to meet subordinate needs.
14Exhibit 11.5: The Path-Goal Model Follower/Subordinate Characteristics- Locus of control- Experience- AbilityLeader Behavior/Styles- Directive- Supportive- Participative- Achievement-orientedFollowers/Subordinates- Perceptions- MotivationOutcome- Satisfaction- PerformanceEnvironmental Factors- Tasks- Formal authority systems- Work group
15Leader-Member Exchange Approach Description of ApproachRecognizes that there is no such thing as consistent leader behavior across subordinates. The LMX approach suggests that leaders classify subordinates into in-group members and out-group members.In-group members have a common bond and value system and interact with the leader.Out-group members have less in common with the leader and don’t share much with her.
16Substitutes for Leadership Description of IdeaLeadership substitutes have been identified as task, organizational, or subordinate characteristics that render relationship- and/or task-oriented leadership as not only impossible but also unnecessary.For example, an experienced, well-trained, knowledgeable employee doesn’t need a leader to structure the task.
17Comparing the Situational Approaches Four Models of Situational LeadershipSimilarities1. Focus on the dynamics ofleadership.2. Have stimulated research onleadership3. Remain controversial because ofmeasurement problems, limitedresearch testing, or contradictoryresearch results.Fiedler’s Contingency ModelHouse’s Path-Goal ModelHersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership TheoryLeader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach
18Vroom-Jago Leadership Model A leadership model that specifies which leadership decision-making procedures will be most effective in each of several different situations.Refer to p.443
19Vroom-Jago Leadership Model AssumptionsThe model should be of value to managers in determining which leadership styles they should use in various situations.No single style is applicable to all situations.The main focus should be the problem to be solved and the situation in which the problem occurs.
20Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Assumptions (continued)The leadership style used in one situation should not constrain the styles used in other situations.Several social processes influence the amount of participation by subordinates in problem solving.
21Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Features of the ModelFive Different Decision StylesAutocratic (A) - the leader makes the decision without input from subordinates.Consultative (C) - subordinates have some input, but you make the decision.Group (G) - The group makes the decision; you (as leader) are just another group member.Delegated (D) - You give exclusive responsibility to subordinates.
22Charismatic Leadership Defining Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic leaders have a combination of charm and personal magnetism that contribute to a remarkable ability to get other people to endorse their vision and promote it passionately.A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.
23Charismatic Leadership Two Types of Charismatic LeadersVisionary Charismatic LeadersThrough communication ability, the visionary charismatic leader links followers’ needs and goals to job or organizational goals.Crisis-Based Charismatic LeadersThe crisis-produced charismatic leader communicates clearly what actions need to be taken and what their consequences will be.
24Exhibit 12.5: Stages of Charismatic Leadership Stage One- Detecting unexploitedopportunities anddeficiencies in thepresent situation- Sensitivity toconstituents’needs- Formulating anidealized strategicvisionStage Two- Communicatingthe vision- Articulating thestatus quo asunacceptable andthe vision as themost attractivealternative- Articulatingmotivation tolead followersStage Three- Building trustthrough technicalexpertise, personalrisk-taking, self-sacrifice, andunconventionalbehaviorStage Four- Demonstratingthe means toachieve the visionthrough rolemodeling,empowerment,& unconventionaltactics
25Transactional Leadership The leader helps the follower identify what must be done to accomplish the desired results: better quality output, more sales or services, reduced cost of productionSimilar toPath Goal
26Transformational Leadership By expressing a vision, the transformational leader persuades followers to work hard to achieve the goals envisioned. The leader’s vision provides the follower with motivation for hard work that is self-rewarding (internal)A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.
27Substitutes for Leadership Organizational VariablesGroup cohesivenessFormalizationInflexibilityLow position powerPhysical separationTask characteristicsHighly structured taskAutomatic feedbackIntrinsic satisfaction
28Servant LeaderA leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.
29Factors that Describe Transformational Leaders Intellectual StimulationManagement by ExceptionIndividual AttentionContingent RewardCharisma
30What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation: CHARACTERISTIC 20TH CENTURY 21ST CENTURYORGANIZATION The Pyramid The Web or NetworkFOCUS Internal ExternalSTYLE Structured FlexibleSOURCE OF STRENGHT Stability ChangeSTRUCTURE Self-sufficiency InterdependenciesRESOUCES Atoms-physical assets Bits-informationOPERATIONS Vertical integration Virtual integrationPRODUCTS Mass production Mass customizationREACH Domestic GlobalDATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000
31What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation: CHARACTERISTIC 20TH CENTURY 21ST CENTURYFININCIALS Quarterly Real timeINVENTORIES Months HoursSTRATEGY Top-down Bottom-upLEADERSHIP Dogmatic InspirationalWORKERS Employees Employees/free agentsJOB EXPECTIONS Security Personal growthMOTIVATION To compete To buildIMPROVEMENTS Incremental RevolutionaryQYALITY Affordable best No compromiseDATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000
32GIVE THEM SOMETHING USEFUL TO DO VALUE THEMGIVE THEM A SCORECARD AND A SAYREWARD CONTRIBUTION