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Situational Theory of Leadership

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Presentation on theme: "Situational Theory of Leadership"— Presentation transcript:

1 Situational Theory of Leadership
An approach to leadership advocating the leaders understand their own behavior, the behavior of their subordinates, and the situation before utilizing a particular leadership style. This approach requires diagnostic skills in human behavior on the part of the leader. Match leadership behavior to subordinates needs

2 Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Slide 1 of 2
A situational leadership theory that emphasizes followers and their level of maturity. The leader must properly judge or intuitively know followers’ maturity level and then use a leadership style that fits the level.

3 Situational Leadership
Hersey-Blanchard High Supporting S3 Share Ideas Facilitated Decision Making Development level of followers RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR Coaching S2 Explain Decision Clarification Opportunity R3 R2 R1 Not competent Not committed R2 Not competent Committed R3 Competent R4 Competent Delegating S4 Get Out of The Way Telling S1 Specific Instructions Closely Supervise R4 R1 Low High TASK BEHAVIOR

4 People With High Task Maturity Tend to Have--
Ability Skills Confidence Willingness to work.

5 The Situational Theory of Leadership

6 The Contingency Leadership Model
Description of the Model The contingency model of leadership effectiveness was developed by Fiedler and postulates that the performance of groups is dependent on the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness. Leadership style is measured by the Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC).

7 Fiedler’s Situational Variables and Their Preferred Leadership Styles
Situational Characteristics I II III IV V VI VII VIII Leader-member relations Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Task structure High High Low Low High High Low Low Position power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Task-Oriented Task-Oriented Relationship-Oriented Preferred leadership style Very Favorable Very Unfavorable

8 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Leader-member relations: refers to group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals. Position power: is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.

9 Leadership Continuum

10 Path-Goal Leadership Model
Description of the Model A theory that suggests it is necessary for a leader to influence the followers’ perception of work goals, self-development goals, and paths to goal attainment. The foundation for the model is the expectancy motivation theory

11 Path-Goal Theory Increase subordinates' motivation to attain personal and organizational goals by-- 1. Clarifying the subordinates' path to the available rewards 2. Increasing the rewards that they value Path clarification means the leader helps subordinates learn the behaviors that lead to task accomplishment and rewards.

12 Three Contingencies of Path-Goal
Leader behavior and style Situational contingencies Use of rewards to meet subordinate needs.

13 Leader Behavior Supportive leadership Directive leadership
Participative leadership Achievement-oriented leadership.

14 Exhibit 11.5: The Path-Goal Model
Follower/Subordinate Characteristics - Locus of control - Experience - Ability Leader Behavior/Styles - Directive - Supportive - Participative - Achievement-oriented Followers/Subordinates - Perceptions - Motivation Outcome - Satisfaction - Performance Environmental Factors - Tasks - Formal authority systems - Work group

15 Leader-Member Exchange Approach
Description of Approach Recognizes that there is no such thing as consistent leader behavior across subordinates. The LMX approach suggests that leaders classify subordinates into in-group members and out-group members. In-group members have a common bond and value system and interact with the leader. Out-group members have less in common with the leader and don’t share much with her.

16 Substitutes for Leadership
Description of Idea Leadership substitutes have been identified as task, organizational, or subordinate characteristics that render relationship- and/or task-oriented leadership as not only impossible but also unnecessary. For example, an experienced, well-trained, knowledgeable employee doesn’t need a leader to structure the task.

17 Comparing the Situational Approaches
Four Models of Situational Leadership Similarities 1. Focus on the dynamics of leadership. 2. Have stimulated research on leadership 3. Remain controversial because of measurement problems, limited research testing, or contradictory research results. Fiedler’s Contingency Model House’s Path-Goal Model Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach

18 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
A leadership model that specifies which leadership decision-making procedures will be most effective in each of several different situations. Refer to p.443

19 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
Assumptions The model should be of value to managers in determining which leadership styles they should use in various situations. No single style is applicable to all situations. The main focus should be the problem to be solved and the situation in which the problem occurs.

20 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
Assumptions (continued) The leadership style used in one situation should not constrain the styles used in other situations. Several social processes influence the amount of participation by subordinates in problem solving.

21 Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
Features of the Model Five Different Decision Styles Autocratic (A) - the leader makes the decision without input from subordinates. Consultative (C) - subordinates have some input, but you make the decision. Group (G) - The group makes the decision; you (as leader) are just another group member. Delegated (D) - You give exclusive responsibility to subordinates.

22 Charismatic Leadership
Defining Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leaders have a combination of charm and personal magnetism that contribute to a remarkable ability to get other people to endorse their vision and promote it passionately. A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.

23 Charismatic Leadership
Two Types of Charismatic Leaders Visionary Charismatic Leaders Through communication ability, the visionary charismatic leader links followers’ needs and goals to job or organizational goals. Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders The crisis-produced charismatic leader communicates clearly what actions need to be taken and what their consequences will be.

24 Exhibit 12.5: Stages of Charismatic Leadership
Stage One - Detecting unexploited opportunities and deficiencies in the present situation - Sensitivity to constituents’ needs - Formulating an idealized strategic vision Stage Two - Communicating the vision - Articulating the status quo as unacceptable and the vision as the most attractive alternative - Articulating motivation to lead followers Stage Three - Building trust through technical expertise, personal risk-taking, self- sacrifice, and unconventional behavior Stage Four - Demonstrating the means to achieve the vision through role modeling, empowerment, & unconventional tactics

25 Transactional Leadership
The leader helps the follower identify what must be done to accomplish the desired results: better quality output, more sales or services, reduced cost of production Similar to Path Goal

26 Transformational Leadership
By expressing a vision, the transformational leader persuades followers to work hard to achieve the goals envisioned. The leader’s vision provides the follower with motivation for hard work that is self-rewarding (internal) A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

27 Substitutes for Leadership
Organizational Variables Group cohesiveness Formalization Inflexibility Low position power Physical separation Task characteristics Highly structured task Automatic feedback Intrinsic satisfaction

28 Servant Leader A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.

29 Factors that Describe Transformational Leaders
Intellectual Stimulation Management by Exception Individual Attention Contingent Reward Charisma

30 What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation:
CHARACTERISTIC 20TH CENTURY 21ST CENTURY ORGANIZATION The Pyramid The Web or Network FOCUS Internal External STYLE Structured Flexible SOURCE OF STRENGHT Stability Change STRUCTURE Self-sufficiency Interdependencies RESOUCES Atoms-physical assets Bits-information OPERATIONS Vertical integration Virtual integration PRODUCTS Mass production Mass customization REACH Domestic Global DATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000

31 What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation:
CHARACTERISTIC 20TH CENTURY 21ST CENTURY FININCIALS Quarterly Real time INVENTORIES Months Hours STRATEGY Top-down Bottom-up LEADERSHIP Dogmatic Inspirational WORKERS Employees Employees/free agents JOB EXPECTIONS Security Personal growth MOTIVATION To compete To build IMPROVEMENTS Incremental Revolutionary QYALITY Affordable best No compromise DATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000


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