Presentation on theme: "Situational Theory of Leadership An approach to leadership advocating the leaders understand their own behavior, the behavior of their subordinates, and."— Presentation transcript:
Situational Theory of Leadership An approach to leadership advocating the leaders understand their own behavior, the behavior of their subordinates, and the situation before utilizing a particular leadership style. This approach requires diagnostic skills in human behavior on the part of the leader. Match leadership behavior to subordinates needs
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Slide 1 of 2 –A situational leadership theory that emphasizes followers and their level of maturity. The leader must properly judge or intuitively know followers’ maturity level and then use a leadership style that fits the level.
TASK BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORRELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR LowHigh Situational Leadership Hersey-Blanchard Telling S1 Specific Instructions Closely Supervise Coaching S2 Explain Decision Clarification Opportunity Supporting S3 Share Ideas Facilitated Decision Making Delegating S4 Get Out of The Way Development level of followers R1Not competent Not committed R2Not competent Committed R3Competent Not committed R4Competent Committed R1 R2R3 R4
People With High Task Maturity Tend to Have-- Ability Skills Confidence Willingness to work.
The Situational Theory of Leadership
The Contingency Leadership Model Description of the Model –The contingency model of leadership effectiveness was developed by Fiedler and postulates that the performance of groups is dependent on the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness. Leadership style is measured by the Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC).
Fiedler’s Situational Variables and Their Preferred Leadership Styles Good Poor High Low High Low StrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeak Task-OrientedRelationship-Oriented Task- Oriented Very Unfavorable Situational Characteristics IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII Situation Leader- member relations Task structure Position power Preferred leadership style Very Favorable
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Leader-member relations: refers to group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals. Position power: is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates. Leader-member relations: refers to group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals. Position power: is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.
Path-Goal Leadership Model Description of the Model –A theory that suggests it is necessary for a leader to influence the followers’ perception of work goals, self-development goals, and paths to goal attainment. The foundation for the model is the expectancy motivation theory
Path-Goal Theory Increase subordinates' motivation to attain personal and organizational goals by-- 1. Clarifying the subordinates' path to the available rewards 2. Increasing the rewards that they value Path clarification means the leader helps subordinates learn the behaviors that lead to task accomplishment and rewards.
Three Contingencies of Path-Goal Leader behavior and style Situational contingencies Use of rewards to meet subordinate needs.
Exhibit 11.5: The Path-Goal Model Follower/Subordinate Characteristics - Locus of control - Experience - Ability Leader Behavior/Styles - Directive - Supportive - Participative - Achievement-oriented Followers/Subordinates - Perceptions - Motivation Environmental Factors - Tasks - Formal authority systems - Work group Outcome - Satisfaction - Performance
Leader-Member Exchange Approach Description of Approach –Recognizes that there is no such thing as consistent leader behavior across subordinates. The LMX approach suggests that leaders classify subordinates into in-group members and out-group members. In-group members have a common bond and value system and interact with the leader. Out-group members have less in common with the leader and don’t share much with her.
Substitutes for Leadership Description of Idea –Leadership substitutes have been identified as task, organizational, or subordinate characteristics that render relationship- and/or task-oriented leadership as not only impossible but also unnecessary. For example, an experienced, well-trained, knowledgeable employee doesn’t need a leader to structure the task.
Comparing the Situational Approaches Four Models of Situational Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model House’s Path-Goal Model Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach Similarities 1. Focus on the dynamics of leadership. 2. Have stimulated research on leadership 3. Remain controversial because of measurement problems, limited research testing, or contradictory research results.
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model A leadership model that specifies which leadership decision-making procedures will be most effective in each of several different situations. Refer to p.443
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Assumptions –The model should be of value to managers in determining which leadership styles they should use in various situations. –No single style is applicable to all situations. –The main focus should be the problem to be solved and the situation in which the problem occurs.
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Assumptions (continued) –The leadership style used in one situation should not constrain the styles used in other situations. –Several social processes influence the amount of participation by subordinates in problem solving.
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model Features of the Model –Five Different Decision Styles Autocratic (A) - the leader makes the decision without input from subordinates. Consultative (C) - subordinates have some input, but you make the decision. Group (G) - The group makes the decision; you (as leader) are just another group member. Delegated (D) - You give exclusive responsibility to subordinates.
Charismatic Leadership Defining Charismatic Leadership –Charismatic leaders have a combination of charm and personal magnetism that contribute to a remarkable ability to get other people to endorse their vision and promote it passionately. A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.
Charismatic Leadership Two Types of Charismatic Leaders –Visionary Charismatic Leaders Through communication ability, the visionary charismatic leader links followers’ needs and goals to job or organizational goals. –Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders The crisis-produced charismatic leader communicates clearly what actions need to be taken and what their consequences will be.
Exhibit 12.5: Stages of Charismatic Leadership Stage One - Detecting unexploited opportunities and deficiencies in the present situation - Sensitivity to constituents’ needs - Formulating an idealized strategic vision Stage Two - Communicating the vision - Articulating the status quo as unacceptable and the vision as the most attractive alternative - Articulating motivation to lead followers Stage Three - Building trust through technical expertise, personal risk-taking, self- sacrifice, and unconventional behavior Stage Four - Demonstrating the means to achieve the vision through role modeling, empowerment, & unconventional tactics
Transactional Leadership The leader helps the follower identify what must be done to accomplish the desired results: better quality output, more sales or services, reduced cost of production Similar to Path Goal
Transformational Leadership By expressing a vision, the transformational leader persuades followers to work hard to achieve the goals envisioned. The leader’s vision provides the follower with motivation for hard work that is self-rewarding (internal) A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.
Substitutes for Leadership Organizational Variables *Group cohesiveness *Formalization *Inflexibility *Low position power *Physical separation Task characteristics *Highly structured task *Automatic feedback *Intrinsic satisfaction
Servant Leader A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.
Factors that Describe Transformational Leaders Charisma Individual Attention Intellectual Stimulation Contingent Reward Management by Exception
What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation : CHARACTERISTIC20TH CENTURY21ST CENTURY ORGANIZATIONThe PyramidThe Web or Network FOCUSInternalExternal STYLEStructuredFlexible SOURCE OF STRENGHTStabilityChange STRUCTURESelf-sufficiencyInterdependencies RESOUCESAtoms-physical assetsBits-information OPERATIONSVertical integrationVirtual integration PRODUCTSMass productionMass customization REACHDomesticGlobal DATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000
What a Difference a Century Can Make Contrasting views of the corporation : CHARACTERISTIC20TH CENTURY21ST CENTURY FININCIALSQuarterlyReal time INVENTORIESMonthsHours STRATEGYTop-downBottom-up LEADERSHIPDogmaticInspirational WORKERSEmployeesEmployees/free agents JOB EXPECTIONSSecurityPersonal growth MOTIVATIONTo competeTo build IMPROVEMENTSIncrementalRevolutionary QYALITYAffordable best No compromise DATA: BUSINESS WEEK 2000
GIVE THEM SOMETHING USEFUL TO DO VALUE THEM GIVE THEM A SCORECARD AND A SAY REWARD CONTRIBUTION