2 R1identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theoryParticle theory explains the properties of SOLID, LIQUID and GASES in terms of particlesSolid : Particles are static, shake with heat but remain locked in position. Solids retain shapeLiquid: Particles stick close to each other but can slide around making a liquid take up the shape of its container, or become a drop due to surface tension when falling as rain, or in space . Surface tension is due to the sticking together of particles COHESIONGases the particles ping around filling containers, causing pressure against the walls. Gases and liquids will DIFFUSE due to motion of particlesElements and compounds have all particles the same, the compound made of different types of atoms. While a mixture there is more than one type of compound
3 R2Students identify that elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of the numbers of protons.An element is defined as having a certain number of protons, He – 2 C-6More or less electrons the element is the same but charged.Number of neutrons defines the isotopeNegative ions are big due to extra electonsPositive ions are small due to less electronsNegative and Positive ions strongly attract each other in ionic bondsWater can be dragged into between ionic bonds and the ionic crystal becomes aqueous, expanding to through the entire liquid
4 R3Students identify groups and periods in the periodic table and describe some relationships between elements e.g. metals, non metals, halogens, noble gases, active metals.The Periodic Table is designed to show Periods where Columns have the same type of property, compared to neighbours, but a trend following down a column/ group
5 R3 Finding groups go to http://www.ptable.com/ Click on the group number and learn the groups.
6 R3 IUPAC group number goes to 1 to 18 But textbooks and schools use Roman Numeral Groups
7 R4identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compoundsatmosphere
8 R4Biosphere is broken down to biomers and ecosystem and populations and individuals that are made of cells
9 R4 Lithosphere – rocks – minerals –compounds KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8Ie metal rich sand most commonCompound in rocksMore on MicaSiO2
10 R4Mica sheets of metal, sand, metal just something!