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Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com Cisco CCNA Exploration CCNA 2 Routing Protocols and Concepts OSPF In Multiple Areas Last Update 2012.02.01.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. www.chipps.com Cisco CCNA Exploration CCNA 2 Routing Protocols and Concepts OSPF In Multiple Areas Last Update 2012.02.01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. Cisco CCNA Exploration CCNA 2 Routing Protocols and Concepts OSPF In Multiple Areas Last Update

2 Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 2 Objectives Learn about OSPF in Multiple Areas

3 OSPF in Multiple Areas In larger networks an OSPF network can be subdivided into areas The goal is to keep as many of the routes inside an area as possible This is done by summarizing the routes at the edge of each area Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 3

4 OSPF in Multiple Areas The benefits of this are less load on the links and routers in terms of –Less overhead on the links as fewer Link State Update packets are needed –Less memory is required in the routers as there are fewer routes to store –Less load on the router’s CPU as there are fewer routes to recompute Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 4

5 OSPF in Multiple Areas Here is an example of this type of layout as seen in a 2010 white paper on this from Global Knowledge Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 5

6 OSPF in Multiple Areas Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 6

7 Internal Router A router that lives wholly inside an area is called an internal router In this example R1 is an internal router in Area 1 They know the topology for their area Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 7

8 Area Border Router A router that lives in two areas is called a Area Border Router It holds information for both areas to which it is attached For example R2 is a ABR that has knowledge of Area 0 and Area 1 The ABR knows the best path from itself to all prefixes in both of these areas Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 8

9 Area Border Router Each ABR also advertises the routes that live in both areas to the other area This is not all of the routes, just the prefixes Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 9

10 Flooding Routes In addition the routes that are learned from one area by Area 0 are flooded into the other areas by Area 0 In this example Area 1 advertises its prefixes to Area 0 Area 0 then knows how to reach those networks Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 10

11 Flooding Routes The ABR between Area 0 and Area 2 also lets the routers in Area 2 know how to reach the networks in Area 1 Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 11

12 An Example Let’s use the diagram shown above to create a simple example of this process Here it is again Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 12

13 OSPF in Multiple Areas Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 13

14 Addressing Here is the addressing scheme for this example Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 14

15 Addressing Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 15

16 Configuration What we can do is configure the ABRs - R2 and R4 - so that instead of advertising each individual prefix from one area to another, they will instead advertise summary blocks For example, we will configure R2 to advertise the /16 block from Area 1 into Area 0, and likewise the /16 block from Area 0 to Area 1 Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 16

17 Configuration Similarly, we’ll have R4 advertise the /16 block from Area 2 into Area 0, and the /16 block from Area 0 into Area 2 Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 17

18 Configuration Thus, for the prefixes within their respective areas, the internal routers see things as follows –R1: /25 through /24 (the 256 subnets in Area 1) –R3: /25 through /24 (the 256 subnets in Area 0) –R5: /25 through /24 (the 256 subnets in Area 2) Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 18

19 Configuration Being an ABR, R2 will have the LSDB for both Area 2 and Area 0 and, therefore, will see 512 prefixes total for those two areas Likewise, R4, the ABR connecting Area 2 to Area 0, will also see 512 prefixes for those areas Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 19

20 Configuration In addition, since the ABRs are advertising the blocks of subnets from one area to another, each router will see one prefix for each area to which it is not directly connected Therefore, the total numbers of prefixes known to the routers will be –R1: 258 prefixes (256 for Area 1, summaries for Area 0 and Area 2) Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 20

21 Configuration –R2: 513 prefixes (256 for Area 1, 256 for Area 0, summary for Area 2) –R3: 258 prefixes (256 for Area 0, summaries for Area 1 and Area 2) –R4: 513 prefixes (256 for Area 2, 256 for Area 0, summary for Area 1) –R5: 258 prefixes (256 for Area 2, summaries for Area 0 and Area 1) Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 21

22 Configuration In the case of the internal routers (R1, R3, and R5), the routing tables have gone from 768 to 258 entries, a reduction of nearly two-thirds In the case of the ABRs (R2 and R4), the number of routing tables has gone from 768 to 513, a reduction of nearly one-third Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 22

23 Configuration As you can imagine, as the total number of subnets goes up, the savings that can be realized by using multiple areas becomes even greater Since OSPF area numbers are 32-bit variables, they can be represented in dotted-decimal format, which can sometimes be convenient Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 23

24 Configuration For example, instead of numbering our areas 0, 1, and 2, we could make them Area , Area , and Area , deriving the area numbers from the IP address ranges within them Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 24

25 Configuration By default, all routers will know about the existence of all 768 subnets, but we can configure the ABRs to advertise summary routes between areas with the OSPF area range command Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 25

26 Configuration Assuming that R2 is running OSPF process ID 1, we’d tell R2 to summarize the “/16” block of routes within Area 1 into Area 0 like this –R2(config)#router ospf 1 –R2(config-router)# area 1 range Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 26

27 Configuration Likewise, we tell R2 to summarize the “/16” block of routes that lies within Area 0 into Area 1 –R2(config-router)# area 0 range Note: In each case, the area number specified is that of the area that contains the routes, not the area into which the summary block is being advertised Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 27

28 Configuration Similarly, we can configure route summarization on R4 between Area 2 and Area 0 –R4(config-router)# area 2 range –R4(config-router)# area 0 range Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 28

29 Multiple Area Design Traditional OSPF design principles call for a limit on the number of routers in an area due to –Memory utilization required to store link states for all of the areas that they are a member of –CPU utilization required to recompute the SPF whenever a link state changes –Memory required to store the routing tables Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 29

30 Multiple Area Design This has led to the following guidelines being suggested for nonbackbone areas –Do not place more than 50 to 100 routers in a single area –Do not allow a router to see more than 50 to 60 OSPF neighbors If many of the links in an area are unstable, then reduce these numbers Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 30

31 Multiple Area Design These numbers were created when the typical router was a Cisco 2500 series As the processing power of routers grew over the years these guidelines were revised Here is a table from OSPF Network Design Solutions by Tom Thomas from 2003 showing the revised guidelines Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 31

32 Multiple Area Design Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 32

33 Multiple Area Design Then the figures were repeated in Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures from 2011 by John Tiso with this update As best practice each area, including the backbone, should contain no more than 50 routers If link quality is high and the number of routes is small, the number of routers can be increased Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 33

34 Multiple Area Design Current ISP experience and Cisco testing suggest that it is unwise to have more than about 300 routers in OSPF backbone area 0, depending on all the other complexity factors that have been discussed As mentioned in the preceding note, 50 or fewer routers is the most optimal design Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 34

35 Multiple Area Design Current thought considering the amount of memory and CPU processing power seen in highend routers argues that these limits are no longer needed Other than just as an organizational tool, there is no need to use multiple areas anymore Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 35

36 Multiple Area Design In this view hundreds of routers can exist in a single area assuming the links are fairly stable Copyright 2012 Kenneth M. Chipps Ph.D. 36


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