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1 ECE 5465 Advanced Microcomputers Group 11: Brian Knight Benjamin Moore Alex Williams

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Outline Review Basic Data Processing Instructions Arithmetic, Bit-wise, Movement, Comparison Instructions ADC, SBC, and RSB Operand2 Multiply Instructions Immediate Values Binary Encoding 2

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Review Data Processing Instructions Arm data processing instructions - Perform arithmetic operations Perform logical operations Operate on data values in Registers The only instructions that modify data values Typically require two operands and produce single result 3

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Arithmetic & Bit-wise Operations op{cond}{S} Rd, Rn, Operand2, where op: ADD, SUB, RSB, ADC, SBC, RSC, AND, ORR, EOR, or BIC cond: optional condition code S: optional suffix that causes condition codes to be updated Rd: ARM register that stores the result Rn: ARM register holding first Operand Operand2: flexible second operand 4

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Arithmetic & Bit-wise Operations 5

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Purpose of ADC and SBC ADC and SBC can be used to perform 64-bit operations 64-bit Add Example: 1 st number : r0,r1 2 nd number: r2,r3 6

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Operand2 Operand2 is a flexible operand with two possible forms #immed_8r: Expression evaluating to numeric constant Rm{,shift}, where Rm: ARM Register holding data for second operand shift: Optional shift to be applied to Rm (LSL,LSR,ASL,ASR,ROR, or RRX) Why do we need both SUB and RSB? RSBr4, r4, #1280; r4:= 1280 – r4 7

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Outline Review Basic Data Processing Instructions Arithmetic, Bit-wise, Movement, Comparison Instructions ADC, SBC, and RSB Operand2 Multiply Instructions Immediate Values Binary Encoding 8

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Register Movement Operations op{cond}{S} Rd, Operand2 9

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Comparison Operations op{cond} Rn, Operand2 10

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Multiplies Immediate second operands not supported Result register must be different than first source Only the least significant 32 bits are saved 11

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Multiply Long Opcode [23:21]MnemonicMeaningEffect 0MULMultiply(32-bit result)Rd:=(Rm*Rs)[31:0] 1MLAMultiply-accumulate(32-bit result)Rd:=(Rm*Rs+Rn)[31:0] 100UMULLUnsigned multiply longRdHi:RdLo:=Rm*Rs 101UMLALUnsigned multiply-accumulate longRdHi:RdLo+=Rm*Rs 110SMULLSigned multiply longRdHi:RdLo:=Rm*Rs 111SMLALSigned multiply-accumulate longRdHi:RdLo+=Rm*Rs 12 ‘RdHi:RdLo’ is the 64-bit result from long multiplication Assignment is denoted with ‘:=‘, Accumulation is denoted by ‘+=‘

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Outline Review Basic Data Processing Instructions Arithmetic, Bit-wise, Movement, Comparison Instructions ADC, SBC, and RSB Operand2 Multiply Instructions Immediate Values Binary Encoding 13

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Immediate Values 14

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Binary Encoding 15 For Data Processing Instructions Condition Codes

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Binary Encoding 16 For Data Processing Instructions Opcode:

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Binary Encoding For Multiply Instructions 17

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BACK-UP SLIDES 18

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How long multiply works 19

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Supported Immediate Values XXXXXXXX XX XXXXXX XXXX XXXX0000 …. XXXXXXXX XXXXXX XX XXXX XXXX XX XXXXXX 20

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Supported Immediate Values What if you want an immediate number of the form following form? XX XXXXXXXX Note that this is just … XX XXXXXXXX 21

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