2Cambridge IGCSE EXAM FORMAT There are two possible exams you can sitThe Extension and the Core Paper.CORE PAPER (Foundation)1 HOUR AND 45 MINUTESANSWER TWO QUESTIONS ON ONE PASSAGEQUESTION ONE IS WORTH 30 MARKSQUESTION TWO IS WORTH 20 MARKSELIGIBLE GRADES C-G40% OF THE COURSES TOTAL MARKS
3EXTENSION PAPER (Higher) 2 HOURS3 QUESTIONS ON TWO PASSAGES WHICH ARE LINKED BY A COMMON THEMEQUESTION ONE IS WORTH 20 MARKS. QUESTION TWO IS WORTH 10 MARKS. QUESTION THREE IS WORTH 20 MARKS.ELIGIBLE GRADES ARE A-E40% TOTAL MARKS
4EXAM TIMINGSEXTENDED PAPERSpend 15 minutes reading the two passagesQuestion One 42 minutesQuestion Two 21 minutesQuestion Three 42 MinutesCORE PAPERSpend 10 minutes reading the passageQuestion One 55 minutesQuestion Two 40 minutes
5Both CORE and EXTENDED PAPERS are out of 50 marks. ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVESBoth CORE and EXTENDED PAPERS are out of 50 marks.40 of those marks are awarded on your reading skills10 marks on your writing skills.
6Title Language Effects Learning Objectives: To be able to identify features of language and explain the effects they can have on a reader
7Today we are going to focus on one of the reading objectives Today we are going to focus on one of the reading objectives. - R4 that is in both the CORE AND EXTENDED PAPERThe four reading objectives are:R1 Understand and collate explicit meaningsR2 Understand, explain and collate implicit meanings and attitudesR3 Select analyse and evaluate what is relevant to specific purposesR4 Understand how writers achieve effects.
8In the Extended Paper it is Question 2 that tests this reading objective To answer this type of question you need to be able to pick out and interesting words and phrases.You need to be aware of language features also known as linguistic devices.You also need to be confident in explaining the effect a certain word or phrase has on the reader.
9How is language used for effect? Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commenting on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses, noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created by language and structure. Look at these examples…The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked.Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise and perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue.Stress that this question is not merely a ‘hunt’ for language devices. Students still need to be showing a sound understanding of the articles, and can talk about the kind of language used (e.g. positive / negative, formal / informal, descriptive / factual, serious / humorous, dramatic / neutral etc.The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m” “don’t” and “can’t”.Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and “spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.
10Common linguistic devices 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint)Word play & punsAlliterationDirectly addressing the readerRhyme & RhythmAnecdote & AllusionImperativesSlogan & CatchphraseRhetorical questionsStatistics & FactsRegister - Formal/Informal languageExaggeration & HyperboleRepetitionDiction - Simple/Complex vocabularyHumourListsEmotive languageFigurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/Punctuation typeExpert adviceShort sentencesPersonification etc.Superlatives
11Language Features Match the technique to the definition Direct Address/Audience involvementAnecdoteEmotive LanguageUsing facts and figuresRhetorical QuestionsShort sentencesExpert opinionIrony/SarcasmInvites trust, suggests knowledge.Use of words like demand/urge/want/frighteningIdeas presented in a way that seems opposite to what is really meantLittle stories to involve reader/create sympathyUsing words such as ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘us’ or ‘I’Questions that can not be answeredTo shock/surprise – make reader believe writer is knowledgeableGets message across
12To prepare yourself for answering Question 2 COMPLETE THE PIXEL THERAPY AND TESTING HANDOUTS.
13Tips for answering -Extended Paper Question 2 Spend your time equally on both paragraphs/parts of the questionHighlight a range of words and phrases that seem powerful to you from both paragraphs.Put quotation marks around your choices.Avoid general comments such as the ‘writer makes you feel that you are really there’ or ‘this is a descriptive phrase.’To explain effects, think of what the reader sees and feels when reading the word or phrase.You need to use up to five examples from each paragraph. One or two examples are not enough to get 7-10 marks.
14YOU MUST NEVER USE THE FOLLOWING PHRASES!!! … UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY The language is goodThe language eye-catchingThe language is effectiveThe language is interestingThe language makes the reader thinkThe language means…… UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY
15Using PEEL Point – Identify a technique Evidence – Give a short quotationExplain – The effect of this technique on the readerLink – Refer back to the question (repeat some of the words)Using PEEL
16Extended Question 2 Bear Grylls EXAM PRACTICEExtended Question 2 Bear GryllsRead the extract as a group.Re- read the descriptions of:The fall in paragraph 3, beginning ‘‘I flip on to my front’’The accidents in paragraph 5, beginning ‘‘Instead, I am in agony, writhing and crying.’’Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this languageWrite between 1 and 1 ½ sides, allowing for the size of your handwritingYou have 21 minutes to answer the question
17Extended Question 2- 2012 paper EXAM PRACTICEExtended Question paperRead the extract about Julia’s visit to the rainforest as a groupRe-read the descriptions of:The rainforest and its wildlife in paragraph 1, from ‘The family was trudging...’Julia’s walk through the rainforest in search of her parents in paragraph 4, from ‘hours later...’Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects by using this languageWrite between 1 and 1 ½ sides, allowing for the size of your handwritingYou have 21 minutes to answer the question
18PLENARYRead through the Model answer for this question as a group.Highlight particular sentences you think are good.In your book write down the top three things the writer has done.