Task Behavior The extent to which the leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group. They include “telling” people what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who is to do it
Relationship Behavior The extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway communication. The behaviors include listening, facilitating, and supportive behavior
Leader Behavior S3 Share ideas and facilitate in decision making S2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification S4 Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation S1 Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance High Rel Low Task High Task High Rel Low Rel Low Task High Task Low Rel (Supportive Behavior) Relationship Behavior High Low Task Behavior (Directive Behavior) Low High Situational Leadership Model
Readiness The extent to which a follower demonstrates the ability and willingness to accomplish a task Ability – knowledge, experience, and skill that an individual or group brings to a particular task or activity Willingness – the extent to which an individual or group has the confidence, commitment, and motivation to accomplish a specific task
Readiness Ability –Knowledge (understanding of a task) –Skill (proficiency in a task) –Experience (ability gained from performing a task) Willingness –Confidence (assurance in the ability to perform a task) –Commitment (duty to perform a task) –Motivation (desire to perform a task)
Able and Willing or Confident Able but Unwilling or Insecure Unable but Willing or Confident Unable and Unwilling or Insecure R4R3R2R1 HighModerateLow Continuum of Follower Readiness
Unable and Unwilling or Insecure Indicators: Not performing tasks to acceptable level Being intimidated by task Being unclear about directions Procrastinating Not finishing tasks Asking questions about task Avoiding task or “passing the buck” Being defensive or uncomfortable R4R3R2 R1 Readiness Level 1 (R1)
Unable but Willing or Confident Indicators: Anxious or excited Interested and responsive Demonstrating moderate ability Receptive to input Attentive Enthusiastic New task, no experience R4R3 R2 R1 Readiness Level 2 (R2)
Able but Unwilling or Insecure Indicators: Has demonstrated knowledge and ability Appears hesitant to finish or take next step Seems scared, overwhelmed, confused Seems reluctant to perform alone Solicits frequent feedback R4 R3 R2R1 Readiness Level 3 (R3)
Able and Willing or Confident Indicators: Keeps boss informed of tasks progress Can operate autonomously Is results-oriented Shares both good and bad news Makes effective decisions regarding task Performs to high standards Is aware of expertise R4 R3R2R1 Readiness Level 4 (R4)
Providing specifics - who, what, when, where, and how Role definition Predominantly one-way communications Leader-made decisions Close supervision and accountability Incremental instructions KISS – Keep it simple and Specific Style 1 - TELLING Effective Telling, Guiding, Directing, Establishing Ineffective Demanding, Demeaning, Dominating, Attacking BACK
Providing who, what, when, where, how, and why Explaining decisions and allow opportunity for clarification Two-way dialogue Leader-made decisions Explain follower’s rule Ask questions to clarify ability level Reinforce small improvements Style 2 - SELLING Effective Selling, Explaining, Clarifying, Persuading Ineffective Manipulating, Preaching, Defending, Rationalizing BACK
Encourage input Actively listen Follower-made decisions Two-way communications and involvement Support risk-taking Compliment work Praise and build confidence Style 3 - PARTICIPATING Effective Participating, Encouraging, Supporting, Empowering Ineffective Patronizing, Placating, Condescending, Pacifying BACK
Readiness LevelAppropriate Style R1, Low Readiness Unable and Unwilling or insecure R1, Low Readiness Unable and Unwilling or insecure R1, Low Readiness Unable and Unwilling or insecure R1, Low Readiness Unable and Unwilling or insecure S1, Telling High Task-Low Relationship S2, Selling High Task-High Relationship S3, Participating High Relationship-Low Task S4, Delegating Low Relationship-Low Task Leadership Styles Appropriate for Various Readiness Levels
Determine Appropriate Style What Objective(s) do we want to accomplish? What is the Group’s Readiness? What Leadership Action should be taken? What was the result of the Leadership Intervention? What follow-up, if any, is Required?
Night 3 – Tuesday March 3, 2015 Session VI Leader Power and Authority
The Nature of Power Latent. Power is something that people have and may or may not choose to use. It is a weapon or tool; it may never be used, and just having it may makes its use unnecessary. Relative. The power one person has over another depends largely on things such as the expertise of one person relative to another and the hierarchical level of one relative to the other; a manager may have considerable power relative to one person and little or none relative to another. Perceived. Power is based on one person’s belief that another has certain characteristics. If I believe you have power over me, you’ve got it! Dynamic. Power relationships evolve over time as individuals gain or lose certain types of power relative to others.
Uses of Power Power over: This is power used to make another person act in a certain way; it may be called dominance. Power to: This is power that gives others the means to act more freely themselves; it is sometimes called empowerment. Power from: This is power that protects us from the power of others; it may be called resistance.
Forms of Compliance to Power Coercive power involves forcing someone to comply with our wishes. With utilitarian power, compliance results from desires for rewards. Normative power rests on the employees’ belief that the organization has the right to govern their behavior.
Interpersonal Power Bases Legitimate: Based on one person’s belief that it is legitimate, or right, for another to give orders or otherwise exert force. Reward: Based on one person’s perception that another can influence the rewards s/he receives. Coercive: Based on one person’s perception that another can influence the punishments s/he receives. Referent: Based on a feeling of identity, or oneness, that one person has for another, or the desire for such identity. Expert: Based on one person’s perception that another has needed expertise in a given area.
Interaction of Bases of Power COERCIVE POWER EXPERT POWER REFERENT POWER REWARD POWER LEGIT. POWER
Power Bases Needed to Influence People’s Behavior at Various Levels of Readiness Readiness Level LowHighModerate Expert Information Referent Legitimate Reward Connection Coercive R4R3R2R1
Power Bases, Readiness Level, and Leadership Style Connections Low High Moderate Expert Information Referent Legitimate Reward Connection Coercive R4R3R2R1 Personal Power “power with” Position Power “power over” Delegating S4 Participating S3 Selling S2 Telling S1
Signs of Power Some signs of power include the abilities to: intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble get a good placement for a subordinate get approval for expenditures beyond the budget get above-average salary increases for subordinates get items on the agenda at policy meetings get fast access to top decision makers get regular, frequent access to top decision makers get early information about decisions and policy shifts
Empowering Others To foster a creative and productive environment where employees are motivated to achieve exceptional performance, the organization’s culture needs to empower its employees. Empowerment seeks to break the cycle of powerlessness in organizations by giving employees a real sense of control. Empowerment gives people in organizations the ability to get things done, often at levels of the hierarchy where the power can be most directly and effectively applied.
Powerlessness Learned helplessness is a condition that results from the belief that one’s behaviors simply don’t make a difference. Learned helplessness results in feelings of powerlessness. Causes of powerlessness in organizations include: –rules won’t change –bosses are set in their ways –things have always been done a certain way –the assembly line is relentless
Some Consequences of Powerlessness Powerlessness Depression Burnout Susceptibility to Illness Academic Failure Lowered Self-Efficacy
Some Empowering Managerial Practices Let the people who work for you participate in decision making. They will gain a sense of control over their work lives and will be more enthusiastic about implementing decisions. Offer control over work processes, such as the ability to stop the assembly line. Tie rewards to performance. Employees naturally feel powerless when they see that their actions don’t directly influence things they care about. Express confidence, encouragement, and support. Celebrate “small wins” and provide assurance that obstacles can be overcome.
The Bottom Line: Empowering Employees Assess the Current Job Responsibilities of Employees Assess the Current Job Responsibilities of Employees Meet with Employees and Educate Them About the Meaning and Objectives of Empowerment Meet with Employees and Educate Them About the Meaning and Objectives of Empowerment Involve Employees in Identifying Ways to Enhance Their Levels of Authority and Responsibility Involve Employees in Identifying Ways to Enhance Their Levels of Authority and Responsibility Formalize the Boundaries of Employees’ Authority Formalize the Boundaries of Employees’ Authority Provide General Guidelines to Help Employees Use Their Authority Effectively Provide General Guidelines to Help Employees Use Their Authority Effectively Provide Managerial Guidance and Support to Help Employees to Be Successful Provide Managerial Guidance and Support to Help Employees to Be Successful Create an Organizational Culture That Supports Employee Empowerment as a Core Value Create an Organizational Culture That Supports Employee Empowerment as a Core Value